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States are supposed to exercise restrain and caution, Lina.S. where the government overreached for whatever reason And we were dead set in the path of it So we knew it was wrong It was wrong on so many levels And so when we saw the suit when the suit actually hit it was then more about how do we communicate to the Apple community why were doing what were doing Because we knew that on the surface why wont you open this phone you know most people would quickly jump to yeah you should do this As we would want to if it didnt have all these other implications to it So it then became more about being clear and straightforward about why we were doing what we were doing When you say civil liberties what do you mean exactly What does that mean to you COOK: It means a lot of things When I think of civil liberties I think of the founding principles of the country The freedoms that are in the First Amendment But also the fundamental right to privacy And the way that we simply see this is if this All Writs Act can be used to force us to do something would make millions of people vulnerable then you can begin to ask yourself if that can happen what else can happen In the next senate you might say well maybe it should be a surveillance OS done Maybe law enforcement would like the ability to turn on the camera on your Mac But it wasnt clear at all Because if you read the All Writs Act you can tell it was written over two hundred years ago Its a very open ended kind of thing that was clearly meant to fill in the crevices of laws that didnt exist yet in the country So we saw this slippery slope there And also the act itself doesnt look at the crime it doesnt look at the reason the government wants it It looks at the burden to the company that its asking to do it So this case was domestic terrorism but a different court might view that robbery is one A different once might view that a tax issue is one A different one might view that a divorce issue would be okay We saw this huge thing opening and thought you know if this is where were going somebody should pass a law that makes it very clear what the boundaries are This thing shouldnt be done court by court by court by court We saw this huge thing opening and thought you know if this is where we’re going somebody should pass a law that makes it very clear what the boundaries are This thing shouldn’t be done court by court by court by court Particularly looking at the history The Congress made a conscious decision not to do this Its not like oh this technology is so new its never been thought of before Its not like that So we saw that being a huge civil liberties slide We saw us creating a back doorwe think its fundamentally wrong And not just wrong from a privacy point of view but wrong from a public safety point of view Think about the things that are on peoples phones Their kids locations are on there You can see scenarios that are not farfetched at all where you can take down power grids going through a smart phone So theres all kinds of things that as we looked at it we think the government should be pushing for more encryption That its a great thing Its like the sun and the air and the water Its a superb thing And certainly some things that are very good can sometimes be used in a bad way We get that But you dont take away the good for that sliver of bad Weve never been about that as a country We make that decision every day right There are some times that freedom of speechwe might cringe a little when we hear that person saying this and wish they wouldnt but we think about the alternative of not having that freedom We think about freedom of the press You just go on and on and on We all cringe occasionally but then we think about if you begin to restrict and limit and box Pretty soon its not the country that were a part of anymore Its not America anymore This to us is like that Its at the core of who we are as a country And you know it wasnt very long ago that all this stuff was being debated Its not like it hasnt been discussed So this seemed like a back door of the back door You know trying to force someone to put a back door in making people more vulnerable Clearly trampling on civil liberties I mean I think its hard to debate these things I think these things are unequivocally what is going on And if they are to go on they should go on out in the open in the Congress and the Congress should pass a law Because those are the people that we vote on to represent us You know we dont elect people in government in appointed positions and for the most part we dont elect judges and so forth And courts can have different views and I think they would We know that Its our system and its the great thing about our system But in something so fundamental this should be talked about Now for us and this is so key I believe that if you took privacy and you said Im willing to give up all of my privacy to be secure So you weighted it as a zero My own view is that encryption is a much better much better world And Im not the only person that thinks that You know Michael Hayden thinks that and he ran the NSA so thats a point of view we should all listen to So you can see not only data theft and theft of all different things but you then begin to think about the public safety aspects of it And to me it is so clear that even if you discount the importance of privacy that encryption is the way to go Im hoping that that comes out strong Once again I think it came out once in the Congress and they said were not doing anything to limit thisI think it happened in the administration as well and they said were not going to seek any legislation on this So I think we need to go through that again and hope everybody comes to the same conclusion Do you feel as though the FBI intentionally took a case that was obviously very emotional its the ultimate domestic terrorism case not so much because there is vital evidence on that phone but because they knew that they were going to make this the hardest version of the debate COOK: I think they picked a case to pursue that they felt they had the strongest possibility of winning Is there something on the phone I dont know I dont think anybody really knows The thing that some people point out or have pointed out to me is that the other phones are smashed One of the family members of the victim came out last week and said everybody knew these phones were monitored In fact he said they had the GPS app on the phone that allowed the county to track the employees because the employees were field employees And Im sure they did it from a safety point of view And the FBI waited seventy-five days I guess thats the other thing that some people pointed out But I dont know is the real answer Do you feel ambushed COOK: No I dont feel ambushed What I feel is that in a professional way if Im working with you for several months on things if I have a relationship with you and I decide one day Im going to sue you Im a country boy at the end of the day Im going to pick up the phone and tell you Im going to sue you And so do I like their tactics No I dont Im seeing the government apparatus in a way Ive never seen it before Do I like finding out from the press about it No I dont think its professional So do I like them talking about or lying about our intentions No Im offended by it Deeply offended by it However putting all of that emotion aside I think the dialogue that is happening now with a lot of different people and a lot of different view points people that agree with us and disagree with us I think its healthy and its a part of democracy So that part Im really excited about And Im optimistic that well get to the right conclusion And again when I say that Im separating the courts going to do what its going to do But you were asking about the broader policy issue I think and Im excited now that people are engaged once again I thought wed already done this to be honest But I think we have to do it again And thats fine So I do think thats positive I dont think the whole thing is negative But there are parts of their approach that I think are heavy-handed and not the country I love Have you spoken to the President COOK: Not about this case You talk about public safety Encryption is obviously incredibly valuable as a tool for preserving public safety As against that theres a long an honorable tradition of law enforcement being able to get access to information that it needs to investigate crimes And that also helps us with public safety So youre weighing one against the other right Its not like its black and white Its you have to make a tradeoff Or am I wrong in saying that COOK: Well first of all I dont make the tradeoff Thats the Congresss job to pass laws and so forth But no I dont see it like that I know everybody wants to paint it as privacy versus security as if you can give up one and get more of the other I think its very simplistic and incorrect I dont see it that way at all Because the reality is that if youlets say you just pulled encryption Lets ban it Lets you and I ban it tomorrow And so we sit in Congress and we say thou shalt not have encryption What happens then Well I would argue that the bad guys will use encryption from non-American companies because theyre pretty smart and encryption isntI dont own encryption Apple doesnt own encryption Encryption as you know is everywhere In fact some of encryption is funded by our government Some of the best encryption is funded by the government But youll see encryption coming out of most countries in the world I don’t own encryption Apple doesn’t own encryption Encryption as you know is everywhere In fact some of encryption is funded by our government So if youre worried about messaging which I think is primarily the worry in this scenario people will just move to something else You know if you legislate against Facebook and Apple and Google and whatever else in the US theyll just use something else So are we really safer then I would say no I would say were less safe because now weve opened up all of the infrastructure for people to go wacko at Youve already seen people hitting the US governmentthey pulled twenty million peoples information out from Social Security their thumbprints and everything else You see people going after private companies You see people going after consumers So the reality of today from a cyber security point of viewI think some of the top people predict that the next big war is fought on cyber security So you want to have an unbelievable defense You probably want to have an offense too but thats somebody elses job to worry about that So the act of banning or limiting or putting a back door ina back door is any vulnerability that if I can get in that means somebody else can We look at it pretty simply as we want to encrypt end to end And if you guys are sending a message to each other you have the ability to read it by putting your passcode in and decrypting it Nancy has the ability to read it but nobody else does So its just a simple thing We dont feel like we should be in the middle of that Im the FedEx guy Im taking your package and Im delivering it I just do it like this My job isnt to open it up make a copy of it put it over in my cabinet in case somebody later wants to come say Id like to see your messages Thats not a role that I play Its not a role that I think I should play And its certainly not a role I think you want me to play I dont think so anyway I dont feel like the storage compartment for trillions of messages And Im not saying that from a cost point of view or anything else Im saying it from an ethics and values point of view You dont want me to hold all that stuff right I think you guys should have a reasonable expectation that your communication is private Thats a new development though right It didnt used to COOK: No from the start from the very start of Messages whenyou were here when we launched it We launched it with end-to-end encryption And so this didnt just happen we didnt suddenly think of this after Snowden I know everybody says that but its not true Facetime end-to-end encrypted from the start I dont mean its new to Apple I mean in a broader sense it didnt use to be the case that private citizens could actually take information and put it in this place not a literal space but a virtual space that was inaccessible to law enforcement That is new is it not COOK: Some of it is new Its hard for me to make a blanket statement like that But yes I mean with hacking getting more and more sophisticated the hacking community has gone from the hobbyist in the basement to huge sophisticated companies that are essentially doing this or groups of people or foreign agents inside and outside the United States People are running huge enterprises off of hacking and stealing data So yes every software release we do we get more and more secure And weve been doing it for years That path the path toward more security and more privacy is a path weve been on for a long time Its not one that we just ventured on a year ago or two years ago or whatever Right Your position isIm putting this in childishly cartoonish termsthat weve got to keep the hackers out and if that means we keep the government out as well so be it Its a trade off COOK: Yes Its not thatIm not targeting government Im not saying hey Im closing it because I dont want to give you any data Im saying that to protect out customers we have to encrypt And a side affect of that is I dont have the data But I wouldnt go the step further that you went to and say that means the government is out Because think about thisnow we have an unusual case in the south so forget about that case for a minute and lets talk about a normal case I’m not targeting government I’m saying that to protect out customers we have to encrypt And a side affect of that is I don’t have the data Lets say they have a problem with you They can come to you and say open your phone And one way is for it to be between the government and you Then you can I dont know they could pass a law that says you have to do it or you have to do it or theres some penalty or something Thats for somebody else to decide But it does seem like it should be between you and them Except if Im dead or like in the drug dealer case I forgot my pass code COOK: You canttheres probably not something that covers every single thing And soand this is one of the issuesif in order to cover the rare exception you put a back door in think about the consequences of the back door You know you cant have a back door that says good people only It doesnt work that way So whats to stop financial institutions from saying we want it to be impossible for the government to have access to financial records COOK: I dont know their infrastructure as well but they use encryption significantly Without encryption you and I wouldnt be able to do our banking online We wouldnt be able to buy things online because your credit cardstheyve probably been ripped off anyway but they would be ripped off left and right every day if there wasnt encryption The thing that is different to me about Messages versus your banking institution is the part of you doing business with the bank they need to record what you deposited what your withdrawals are what your checks that have cleared So they need all of this information That content they need to possess because they report it back to you Thats the business theyre in Take the message My business is not reading your messages I dont have a business doing that And its against my values to do that I dont want to read your private stuff So Im just the guy toting your mail over Thats what Im doing So if Im expected to keep your messages and everybody elses then there should be a law that says you need to keep all of these Now I think that would be really bad I think it would be really bad because in order for me to keep them I have to have a way to see them If I have to have a way to see them and a place to copy them you can imagineif you knew where the treasure was buried at and everybody else did then it puts a bulls eye on that target And in the world of cyber security the last thing you want is to have a target painted on you Im not just saying that from an Apple point of view but if its painted anywhere No one should have a key that turns a billion locks It shouldnt exist No one should have the message content for all of these messages You wouldnt want it all in one place I think it would be very bad for security and privacy If I know what your messages are if I can read those Ill probably be able to conclude where youre going who youre with the location the message was sent No one should have a key that turns a billion locks It shouldn’t exist I mean the location the message was sent the phone company would have anyway probably if it goes across the cellular network But theres just a lot of information there that can have implications on your safety or your loved ones safety So being mindful of the fallacy of the hypothetical suppose on the other side of the door is the nuclear device thats on a timer or the child whos being tortured And you have a key to that door COOK: If I had a key to that door I would turn that door But thats not the issue here just to be clear Its not that I have information on this phone and Im not giving it I had information I gave all of it Now theyre saying hey you could invent something to grab some additional information Were not sure theres anything on there but we want you to invent this in case there is And the thing that they want me to invent that key can turn millions of locks But that just argues that their rationale isnt as strong as it should be It may not exist We dont know if theres anything valuable on that phone COOK: Im actuallyforget that because Im not substituting my judgment for theirs on the phone I think theyve said what Ive said They dont know if theres anything on it I think everybodys said that I think Comey says maybe there is maybe theres not So I think everybody recognizes that there may not be anything on it there may be something on it What Im saying is to invent what they want me to invent puts millions of people at risk And its not about one phone Its very much about the future You have a guy in Manhattan saying Ive got a hundred and seventy-five phones that I want to take through this process Youve got other cases springing up all over the place where they want phones taken through the process So its not about one phone and they know its not about one phone I mean thats a purpose of the case to set a precedent to get a process so they can kind of turn a crank without regard to what the case is about honestly Right Its anything a court would say to use it for But is your point then that the courts are not the right place You talked about if Congress wants to do this pass a law But youre also saying it would be absolutely bad for Apple to build this COOK: Yes Whether its Congress that tells you to do that COOK: I am saying that or the courts In that case arent you putting yourself and your judgment in front of any democratic processes as well as a legal process COOK: No because at the end of the day Ill follow the law But in our view theres no law today that says I have to do this The government is saying that this two hundred-plus year old law gives them the right to tell me I have to do it I look at that and say come on guys this is crazy Thats not right and you know its not right At the end of the day I’ll follow the law But in our view there’s no law today that says I have to do this So that dispute is going to happen in court now but on the larger issue of encryption and back doors to me that is a Congressional topic because it has huge implications across many different areas Someone needs to take a step back and look at public safety They need to look at national security They need to look at cyber security They need to look at privacy They need to look at other civil liberties To me Congress is the natural place that is set up in our three-branch structure in order to weigh such things And if at the outcome if they conclude that they want to limit or ban encryption or force a back door then they clearly have the right to do that Because they can pass a law And if the President signs it it becomes law Do I think that will happen No I think theres too much evidence to suggest that thats bad for national security It means were really throwing out founding principles on the side of the road So I think theres so many things to suggest that they wouldnt do that Thats not something I lose sleep over Im very optimistic I have got to be that in a debate a public debate all of these things will rise up and youll see sanity take over You know as well as I do sometimes the way we get somewhere our journey is very ugly But Im a big optimist that we ultimately arrive at the right thing Yes theres been cases that that doesnt happen But I optimistically think that it will So what I would like to see is we think it should be studied This was the commission idea The reason were saying that is not to punt its where somebody can look at all of these implications Right now we have one part of government looking at one thing Theyre looking at how do I get the most information to solve this case Or maybe not to solve it because they may have it solved but get the most information on this case Im saying guys what youre asking me to do has a lot more implications than this case This is something that to me is a basic responsibility that they have If somebody studies it and the right people are on it the right debate happens which I think is largely happening today then I think what will come out of it is people will stop talking about weakening or banning encryption Well have a huge pro-encryption stance that people will rally around that its a good thing that its a great thing and a necessary thing I think that people will conclude that no back doors are the best and the US should take a position that leads in the world by saying no back doors anywhere I think that Congress will do something to empower the different intelligence arms to build out a set of capabilities new capabilities to do their roles I the modern world and encryption being a part of that That wont need you doing it for them COOK: Correct But Id like to talk about that for a moment just toyoull hear the words "going dark" or "warrantless" or these kinds of words This is how I see it is right now if somebody wanted information about Lev they could go towhos your carrier Verizon They could subpoena Verizon lay a warrant on Verizon They would find out all the calls youve made who they were made to the length of the call the time of the call They could find out a lot of location data They would find out messages that you sent across the cellular network where you were Lots of information If they get at my Nike app my running times are terrible COOK: They may also learn that right I dont know I cant speak for Nike on that But they would know they would come to us and they would ask for some information and if they had a valid warrant we would fill that They would also probably spend a lot of time looking at things youd done online right because theres lots of things done in the public eye The truth is this is the golden age of surveillance that we live in There is more information about all of us so much more than ten years ago or five years ago Its everywhere You are leaving digital footprints everywhere Also theres cameras everywhere and I mean not just security cameras but we all have a camera in our pocket So if you want to know something that happened at a particular scene you could probably find photos of that Thanks to you COOK: Thanks to yes partly us Thats right And so my only point is going dark is notthis is a crock No ones going dark I mean really its fair to say that if you send me a message and its encrypted its fair to say they cant get that without going to you or to me unless one of us has it in our cloud at this point Thats fair to say But we shouldnt all be fixated just on whats not available We should take a step back and look at the total thats available Because theres a mountain of information about us I mean theres so much Anyway Im not an intelligence person But I just look at it and its a mountain of data As a business person as the guy running Apple should this go to Congress they rule goes against you how bad is it for Apple from a business point of view COOK: I think first of all its bad for the United States Because going against us doesnt just mean going against us It means likely banning limiting or forcing back doors for [everyone] I think it makes the US much more vulnerable Not only in privacy but also in security The national infrastructure everything And I cant imagine it happening because it would be outlandish for something like that to happen I think everybody has better judgment than that But at the end of the day were going to fight the good fight not only for our customers but for the country Were in this bizarre position where were defending the civil liberties of the country against the government Who would have ever thought this would happen I never expected to be in this position The government should always be the one defending civil liberties And theres a role reversal here I mean I still feel like Im in another world a bit that Im in this bad dream in some wise We’re in this bizarre position where we’re defending the civil liberties of the country against the government Who would have ever thought this would happen So I dont expect that the country wants that You know we flirt with different things over different times But we always come back to our core And so is it bad for Apple I think its bad for America really bad for America And I dont expect itll happen I dont think itll happen Theres too many bright people around Do you find it odd that now your job description includes weighing questions of public and private security questions of privacy right and wrong Is it odd to you to be thrust into that role COOK: Yes It feels very uncomfortable in some ways Fighting the government is not a thing we choose to do America is always stronger when we do things together And so in my view the right approach here is for technology and intelligence to talk about the things we can do [together] Ways we can have both privacy and security Not view the world as this see-saw I think this is a really strange way to see this But its something that were fighting willingly The easiest thing for us would have been to just do it That would have been easy But its not right And so I think at the end of the dayand none of us would have been able to sleep at night We would have felt we had sold out But that doesnt make it comfortableIt is shocking to me that the US is the only country in the world that has asked this If I had heard it from I dont know from some other country or something then maybe it would feel a little different But the US should be the shining city on the hill the beacon of civil liberties This is just one of those cases where occasionally the government over reaches and doesnt act in the best interest of its citizens But Im optimistic that well get through it and get to a much better place From a technological point of view is the optimal path forward that you guys just engineer yourselves out of this loop Make is to that you couldnt even supply the government OS that would do what the government is asking you to do COOK: I think with every release we do we have to go up Because we have to try to stay one step ahead of the bad guys out there The truth is that our security today will not be good enough for tomorrow Thats true You have to accept that whether youre sitting here or any other companies around this valley Security isnt just a feature its a base its a fundamental right I would never do what youre saying with the intention of doing that Our intention is never anything to do with government its to protect people Is it a consequence of it Yes I mean over time you do more and more and more Thats the road weve been on for a decade Actually more than that I guess if you think about the Mac encryption has been I the Mac since the 80s the end of the 80s or something like that right So its not — What do you think it says about the changed information environment in which we live What you alluded to earlier just the vast clouds of data which we now generate by virtue of going about our daily business Were just sort of spewing out gigabytes of data everything we do to the point where privacy it changes what privacy means Now privacy becomes rather than the default setting of the world that we live in not it becomes a feature that we have to buy and shop for and rely on Is that a change youve observed over the course of your career COOK: I think your observation that theres this increasing amounts of data is absolutely true It wasnt very long ago you wouldnt even think about there being health information on the smart phone But today theres a lot of health information available on your smart phone Theres financial information Theres your conversations theres business secrets Theres an enormous long list of things that theres probably more information about you on here than exists in your home right Which makes it a lot more valuable to all the bad guys out there Thats a reality That data is increasing in phenomenal leaps and bounds all the time along with the sort of the hacking and cyber issues are going up at the same time So these two curves are pointed in the same direction Partly and no surprise because theres so much more information out there Its clear why hacking communities are [growing] Because its like theres a lot more gold there Theres a lot more to steal than ever before Theres unbelievably nefarious things happening out there I think those two curves are connected are very strongly correlated with each other I think that [there is] this fundamental right to privacy and the philosophy that government shouldnt be intrusive To me that is the same I dont think because this is escalating that that should fundamentally be different Now do people do different companies etc look at privacy different Yes they clearly do And thats the reason all of us have privacy policies and some you can actually read and you can look at these things and judge for yourself where you see it But I think the fundamental right thats there is a constitutional right I mean this is something that is basic to who we are Its not something that floats with technology To be honest I oscillate from side to side on this issue And it troubles me to think of should god forbid a future act of domestic terrorism occurs who knows it gets linked back to that phone in San Bernardino we could have spotted it coming How do you weigh the lives lost there against the diminution of millions of peoples privacy not an abolition of it but degradation of their privacy It involves a lot of difficult calculus COOK: Youre clicking back to privacy versus security though And I think its privacy and security or privacy and safety versus security Its not that peoples wellbeing their physical wellbeing is not a part of privacy It is It very much is Its not that one side has life and one has side is a your financial information or your photo or whatever its not that Think about something that happens to the infrastructure where theres a power grid issue Sure just happened COOK: Think about the people that are on a device a medical device that depends on electricity And of course hospitals have generators etc but theres a lot of people out in homes that do not These are real things these arent fantasy things by any means Both sides are real though I mean … is real COOK: Both sides are real And yes both sides are real But giving up one doesnt get you more of that Because whats going to happenagain I get back to what I see is if you limit us the internet doesnt have boundaries And so you can wind up getting an app from Eastern Europe or Russia or wherever it doesnt matter which country just outside the United States And that app would give you end to end encryption The terrorists is smart enough to use that But were trying to protect everyday people Everybody doesnt want to have to be a computer scientist to protect themselves Most people have no desire to do that Thats the fundamentalIts one of those things that people might feel good for a moment They passed a law and everybody goes Whew But then when you look at the reality the bad guys still use it and theyre still in the shadow And who have you exposed Youve exposed the 99% of good people When Donald Trump calls for a boycott of Apple products do you think thats because he doesnt understand the arguments that youre making COOK: I havent talked to him so I dont know what he thinks The way I look at it is Apple is this great American company that could have only happened here And we see it as our responsibility to stand up on something like this and speak up for all these people that are thinking what were thinking but dont have the voice We see it as our responsibility to stand up on something like this and speak up for all these people that are thinking what we’re thinking but don’t have the voice We dont see it as our role as the decision maker We understand Congress sets laws But we [see] it as our role not to just let it happen I mean too many times in history has this happened where the government over reached did something that in retrospect somebody should have stood up and said Stop We see that this is our moment to stand up and say Stop And force a dialogue And that dialogue may I dont know how itll go Im optimistic But I dont know at the end of the day But I see that as our role What kind of over reach are you thinking of when you think of the historical COOK: I can think of really bad things where things were done that Im sure people looked at and thought were good at the time And nobody said anything I do think this is something that I think will affect the wellbeing of citizens of the US for decades to come that will affect civil liberties for decades to come This is of that kind of stature and of that kind of importance As it was going the steamroller was on And our job was just to be rolled up under the steamroller And thats what they expected I wouldnt be able to live [with that] anymore and nobody here would It wasnt just me Its literally almost the whole company feels like that And yes we understand the technology a lot more and so we see we understand technically this thing deeply We ward off attacks every day and so we have a working knowledge of the cyber landscape That probably makes us more ultra sensitive to it And were also believers in civil liberties To me this is a part of the foundation of what America is Right to privacy is really important You pull that brick out and another and pretty soon the house falls Contact us at [email protected]: BSP chief Mayawati on Thursday termed the developments in Bihar in the last 24 hours as ominous for democracy and said that the "hunger for more power" was leading the BJP into misusing government machinery and investigative agencies File image of Mayawati Reuters Linking the Bihar developments to that of Goa and Manipur the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo also said that the democratic values in the country were being weakened by such lust of power by the Bharatiya Janata Party Urging the people of the country to come forward and "save the country" from this "worrying situation" the four-time Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister in a statement also said that the Bihar developments were a big let-down for the people of Bihar The fact that the Janata Dal (United) broke away from the grand alliance with the Congress and Rashtriya Janata Dal and within hours formed a government with the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) alliance partners is nothing but a breach of trust by Nitish Kumar with the people of Bihar who had voted for the alliance she said Mayawati also went on to accuse the Narendra Modi government at the centre of throttling democracy and the Constitution as in the case of Goa Manipur and now Bihar and said that misuse of the government machinery to arm-twist the opposition and to form governments was a big hazard for democracy in the country It is no longer news that President Muhammadu Buhari has nominated Edward Adamu as the Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria CBN Adamu who is 57 years hails from Kaltungo Local Government Area in Gombe State He holds a Quantity Surveying degree from the Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria and is a Fellow of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors He also holds postgraduate professional certifications in corporate strategy development and execution performance management programme & project management and knowledge management Adamu is a fellow of the Institute of Credit Administration of Nigeria and has acquired skill-sets in strategic leadership central banking finance human resources organisational transformation risk management budgeting and cost management construction management records management communications and relationship management coaching and mentoring and procurement through a variety of Wharton School USA INSEAD France Chicago Booth & IMD Switzerland courses and practical experience He is also a frequent presenter at professional conferences seminars and symposia especially in the areas of leadership human capital management project management construction strategy and risk management Adamu is in addition an active member of other professional bodies such as the the Project Management Institute USA; International Knowledge Management Institute USA; International Society for Performance Improvement USA; and the Association of Project Managers UK In 2012 he was appointed Director of the Strategy Management Department of the CBN in recognition of his depth of operational knowledge of the Bank’s mandate and core responsibilities as well as the breadth of CBN’s strategy implementation experience As the Director of Strategy he was also a member of the Monetary Policy Implementation Committee and the Financial Services Regulatory Coordination Committee as well as an observer at the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) meetings In 2016 Adamu was appointed Director Human Resources Department of the Bank to give effect to the human resources transformation programme initiated during his role as Director Strategy Management The All Progressives Congress’ Presidential Campaign Organisation has called on the Peoples Democratic Party PDP to leave it out of the internal crisis rocking the ruling party across the country This call was made in a statement by the media and publicity director of the APC campaign Organisation Malam Garba Shehu warning PDP to stop demonizing them for their internal crisis According to Shehu the violence in Jos Plateau State that resulted in the burning of President Jonathan’s campaign buses was a PDP affair “The incident in Jos was passed as a ‘PDP on PDP violence’ yesterday evening flowing from their rigged primaries That is the earliest security report we got “Nobody should change that and use it to demonize opponents” he said The statement further stated that “General Buhari was the first to condemn this incident the moment it was reported on Saturday” “Check his Twitter handle These were his words: ‘I have been informed of the burning of PDP campaign buses in Jos today This is unacceptable There is no excuse for this violence “I am hoping that the police will immediately investigate arrest and prosecute the culprits Our democracy cannot tolerate violence in any form” Buhari said Shehu pleaded that “PDP should leave us out of their wahala”

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