(Phys.org)—Researchers from the University of Michigan working in collaboration with associates from the US Air Force have created a new type of surface cover that repels oils, water, alkali solutions, acids and even non-Newtonian fluids. In their paper published in Journal of the American Chemical Society, the researchers describe their new material and the different ways it can repel various liquids. The material they’ve created works due to two separate aspects: its chemical structure and its physical layout. It’s based on a very small gauge steel mesh which has been coated with polymer (PDMS and POSS) beads. The unique pattern laid down limits surface area and has an overhanging structure that limits adhesion. Also, tiny air pockets between the beads prevent materials from actually touching other parts of the surface, preventing liquids from getting a grip.The researchers explain that surface repellents work in general by limiting the wetting hysteresis – the amount of deformation that occurs when a liquid hits a surface. Ideally the contact angle at both the front and rear of a drop remain the same – the result is a lessened impact area. In practical terms this means that the more a drop remains formed like a drop when it strikes, the less likely it is to adhere to a surface. Play Credit: J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/ja310517s PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play Credit: J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/ja310517s The researchers demonstrated the material’s ability to repel liquids by shooting various liquids through a small jet at a covered surface and filming it as it bounced off instead of adhered. They also demonstrated that the covering also provides protection from chemical attack by dunking a coated aluminum plate into several acidic solutions. Its strength in doing so, the team explains, comes about from the same properties that prevent adhesion. If an acid cannot touch a surface (because of the air pockets) it cannot destroy it. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Play Credit: J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/ja310517s Researchers have found it particularly difficult to develop surface covers that repel liquids that contain polymers, particularly non-Newtonian fluids. This is because such substances tend to deform almost immediately on contact. Thus, the challenge has been to discover a way to cause such fluids to retain their shape as they drop onto a surface. With the new material, the overhanging, eave-like edges of the beads prevent the liquid drop from distending while also preventing it from reaching an adjacent part of the surface. That limits the amount of distension and thus the deformation of the drop. More information: Superomniphobic Surfaces for Effective Chemical Shielding, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/ja310517sAbstractSuperomniphobic surfaces display contact angles >150° and low contact angle hysteresis with essentially all contacting liquids. In this work, we report surfaces that display superomniphobicity with a range of different non-Newtonian liquids, in addition to superomniphobicity with a wide range of Newtonian liquids. Our surfaces possess hierarchical scales of re-entrant texture that significantly reduce the solid–liquid contact area. Virtually all liquids including concentrated organic and inorganic acids, bases, and solvents, as well as viscoelastic polymer solutions, can easily roll off and bounce on our surfaces. Consequently, they serve as effective chemical shields against virtually all liquids—organic or inorganic, polar or nonpolar, Newtonian or non-Newtonian. Citation: Researchers create super-repellant surface material (w/ video) (2013, January 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-01-super-repellant-surface-material-video.html PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen © 2013 Phys.org Journal information: Journal of the American Chemical Society Explore further Research duo discover why non-Newtonian fluids harden on impact PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen
Beatle star Paul McCartney almost guest starred on Friends as he was offered the role of Ross’ father-in-law.Emmy-nominated casting director Leslie Litt, who was working on the NBC hit series during most of its run, revealed that McCartney, now 72, could’ve appeared in the season 4 finale of the show as David Schwimmer’s on-screen father-in-law, but he turned it down, reported Huffington Post.“I went through his manager and gave him all the details. One day, someone in the office brought me a faxed letter written to me by Paul himself! He thanked me for my interest and said how flattered he was, but it was a very busy time for him,” Litt said.If the British musician had agreed to do it, he would’ve appeared in the two-part season four finale which aired in 1998.In the said outing, Ross married Emily (Helen Baxendale) in London though he accidentally said Rachel’s (Jennifer Aniston) name instead of his bride’s name at the altar.
Kolkata: The Regional Meteorological Centre in Alipore on Wednesday issued a warning of heavy to very heavy rainfall in several South Bengal districts, including the city, in the next 24 hours. The northern parts of the state will also witness rainfall till Friday.A cyclonic circulation over the northern part of Bay of Bengal has formed into a low pressure area over the bay and its adjoining areas, bringing heavy downpour in the state. Under its influence, heavy to very heavy rain is likely to occur in North 24-Parganas, South 24-Parganas, Nadia and Murshidabad, Hooghly, West Midnapore and South 24-Parganas. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAccording to the weather office prediction, the other districts will also receive moderate to heavy rainfall in the next 24 hours. It has been learnt that the low pressure trough has become stationary at one point and is moving very slowly. So, it may cause heavy rain in various places in both North and South Bengal districts. There is a possibility of strong wind blowing in some parts along with rain, the Met office has predicted.According to experts, the low pressure area over Bay of Bengal may turn into a depression during the next 24 hours, resulting in more rain in the state. In view of the prediction of heavy rainfall, the fishermen in the coastal districts have been advised not to venture into the sea as it might turn turbulent. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAccording to a senior weather official, a few days ago a low pressure trough had formed over North Odisha and adjoining parts of Bengal and gained strength, contributing to rainfall in the state. Rain is also predicted in the North East states as well.It may be mentioned that the city and other districts have been witnessing moderate to heavy rainfall for the past few days. Continuous rain for the last few days have, however, given some relief to the city dwellers as both the temperature and the humidity levels have been brought down by the downpour.The people were experiencing sweltering heat before it started raining. The situation is likely to continue in the next couple of days, when city residents will experience comparatively comfortable weather.
Airbnb—the room rental company that does not own any rooms—has just sued the city of New York. Why? This is because the city has introduced a bill to penalise anyone who rents out their apartment for less than 30 days. This would effectively kill Airbnb’s business, which makes every household owner a potential hotelier. Airbnb provides an online listing system—anyone who owns a house, or many properties can rent out space. The business cuts into the profits of conventional hotels who have to buy land, build rooms and take care of the establishment. In Airbnb’s case, the costs are low and distributed. More importantly, thousands, even millions, of rooms suddenly become available, which eat into the market of house rentals or hotels. Airbnb is, not surprisingly, hitting old business, which also is hitting back. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIt is also difficult to regulate. Just think. How do city governments control millions of property owners who have become instant hoteliers? Airbnb argues that its reputational system, where owners and guests rate each other, regulates the informal market. Governments disagree. Airbnb is fighting similar battles in Amsterdam, Barcelona, Berlin and even in its hometown of San Francisco, and the list is growing. Uber—the taxi service that does not own any cars—has similar battles on hand. Uber, and others like it, have turned every car owner into a potential service provider. All that Uber does is to aggregate these millions of car owners who have overnight become taxi drivers. This is why it can reduce costs and work the market—drastically undercut the market price and drive regular taxi service into the red. All this without owning a single car. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveUber and its variants are facing tremendous hostility from the old business. I saw this at close hand when the Supreme Court of India directed that all taxis, including those run by aggregators like Uber or Ola, should convert to CNG. This was done to reduce Delhi’s runaway air pollution. But the result of this seemingly simple order was out and out war. All taxi owners—from the black and yellow, radio taxi, to the tourist taxi and all India tourist taxi—converged at the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (I am a member of it), which is required to oversee the implementation of the Supreme Court’s direction. They had only one demand: stop Uber and Ola. Our objective was different—to regulate the fuel used by taxis and not to stop their operations. But regulation is a challenge. In the very first meeting, the police informed us that they are helpless. They could not identify the taxi—every car had become a taxi. Uber and Ola told us that they were not taxi operators—only aggregators. In fact, their companies are registered as information technology providers. They were also not responsible for anything—customers hired cars using their platform and rated the service provided by drivers. The Delhi government had issued guidelines, which would curtail the operations of such aggregators, but Uber challenged this in the court. Finally, after weeks of protracted discussions, and often violent disagreements, it was agreed that all taxis, including those listed with the aggregators, would run on CNG. But all other issues, including the contentious issue of surge pricing, remained unresolved. Governments in India and abroad are battling with taxi operators and technology companies to formulate these rules. But why am I writing this now? The fact is Airbnb and Uber are part of the inevitable change in our future. The reason is that the modern world has formalised its economy to the point that it has become unviable. The brick-and-mortar world requires massive infrastructure, and this then requires regulations to ensure that all this operates within rules. The cost of regulations is also high and adds to the cost of running the economy. In my view, Uber and Airbnb are undercutting this world—by making the best use of the individual’s assets. In both cases, they are optimising existing resources—the cars and houses people own—to make more money and share the profits. But most importantly, these businesses are working the informal space. They are doing this to reduce costs and to expand opportunity. This is where we need to think further of what our world is about. In countries like India, informal business is the existing order of the day. Everything—from collecting sewage from homes, recycling garbage to providing transport in our cities—is managed by millions of myriad informal businesses. But we do not consider it part of our future. Worse, it defies regulation as we know it today. So, it must go. But given that the formal economy comes with costs, we cannot replace this informal and thriving business. But to kill it we neglect it; make it illegal, and altogether despise it. But still, it stays. We just can’t make it work. So, is it time we thought of a different business future? Let’s discuss this again.(The writer is Editor of Down To Earth magazine. Views expressed are strictly personal.)
Kolkata: Taking strong exception to road blockades staged by college students over attendance mandate, West Bengal Education Minister Partha Chatterjee has asserted the government will be forced to take action if the agitators cause inconvenience to public for “personal benefit”. A large number of students from two institutes – Shibnath Shastri College and Heramba Chandra College – took to streets on Thursday and Friday to protest against the Calcutta University (CU) mandate of 60 per cent minimum attendance for appearing in examinations. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life The agitators of Heramba Chandra College blocked thoroughfares in Golpark area for two consecutive days, demanding immediate relaxation of norms. The protest was also backed by students of Gurudas College and Jaipuria College, who demonstrated outside their campuses. The education minister said the government will not succumb to the pressure tactics of the students. “Under no circumstances will the administration tolerate such pressure tactics. Many people were inconvenienced as they (students) blocked the roads to get their demands fulfilled. This is unacceptable,” Chatterjee told reporters on Saturday. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed Earlier this year, the CU authorities had asked all affiliated colleges to ensure that only those with a minimum 60 per cent attendance would be allowed to sit for semester exams. A list of non-eligible students was recently published at Heramba Chandra College, triggering the agitation. Chatterjee pointed out that the state education department has fixed 60 per cent attendance as a criterion to sit for semester exams, even as the UGC suggested 75 per cent attendance for higher educational institutions. “Maybe the agitating students wanted to sit for exams without attending classes or studying,” he said. Heramba Chandra College Principal Nabanita Chakraborty, who met Chatterjee Saturday morning, said the authorities are planning to reduce the cut-off figure for attendance from 60 per cent to 55 per cent. Trinamool Congress Chhatra Parishad (TMCP), the students’ wing of the ruling party, also appealed to the education minister to find a “way out of the deadlock” to restore normalcy in the institutes. TMCP president Trinankur Bhattacharya, who met the minister at his residence, told reporters that the unit has sought a solution that would be acceptable to all sides. A TMCP source said the union urged Chatterjee to consider relaxation in attendance norm for this year.
Hollywood actress Emma Watson is not only championing gender equality as the UN Women Goodwill Ambassador, but is also impressing Indian fashionistas with her Disney princess look in musical romantic fantasy film Beauty and the Beast. We have rounded up her statement beauty and hair looks respectively that have left many inspired!For make-upUse a light-weight foundation blended well that will give you a healthy and moisturised look paired with a concealer under your eyes. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfBrush out your brows and fill them in softly with a brow pencil.To achieve the modern graphic eye liner, line your eyes with a soft brown gel liner and flick it out like a cat eye, except leave the flick unfilled.Complete the look with a coral lipstick which will balance out the eyeliner.For hairMake sure you have some tools handy when you decide to do this on yourself; a dryer, a medium sized tongs, bobby pins, u-pins and a back-combing brush. It’s always better if your hair is a day old and not washed the same day. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveMake sure your hair has enough texture to work with; take large sections and spray every section with a heat protected product that will make your curls last more longer and define them. Use the medium tongs on every section and curl it away from the face giving it a looser texture to work with.Once you’re done with the style, open it using some smoothing cream to loosen the curls and add more shine and softness.Tie a ponytail at your occipital bone and fix the hair around the ponytail to create more texture and definition to the style. Take smaller pieces of the sections and dress them around the ponytail for better grip and a much fuller look making sure all the hair in the ponytail is incorporated. Once the back is complete, take smaller sections from the front and dress it away from the face. You can twist and open the twist slightly teasing it with your fingers and then fix it on the ponytail making sure the whole look comes together.The front section has to be raised while blow drying to make sure that extra volume is created on the roots. Once that’s done, hold the hair in the same position and spray it to create a wave and fix it in the same position.Fix the front section towards the side or towards the ponytail depending on how long or short the hair is.At the end spritz a shine or setting spray to lock in the moisture and the look.
Kolkata: The state Power department has developed a comprehensive ‘Energy Action Plan’ in order to generate world-class electricity in Bengal.The Power department has been exploiting all its resources to ensure that the people here in the state can avail the quality of electricity that is normally found in Western countries. In its attempt to produce best quality power, the state government has focused on the renewable energy sector. A senior official of the department said through the development of an ‘Energy Action Plan’, the department aims to produce the best quality electricity, at par with the Western countries, in the next 2-3 years. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”We are venturing into the unknown areas of renewable energy sources and in the future years, there will be a paradigm shift from conventional energy to renewable energy. We are taking all necessary steps to make the whole process more sustainable. How the grid integration will be done remains a big challenge for us,” a senior official of the Power department said. In the last one year, more than 10 power sub-stations have been constructed across the state to maintain better quality of electricity and also to address the voltage problem that has often been reported from some pockets, the official added. In the solar energy sector, Bengal has already achieved a significant growth through various projects. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedStressing on the generation of hydroelectricity, the Bengal government has taken up a number of new initiatives. Several hydroelectric projects are coming up on Teesta river, namely Teesta I, Teesta II, Teesta V, Teesta Intermediate state and Rammam Stage I in Darjeeling, each having a capacity of 80-84 MW. “The number of hydroelectricity resources is not plenty in Bengal. Despite the challenges, we are trying our best to generate hydroelectricity, which is one of our main focus areas in the state now,” the official said. It may be mentioned here that the Centre, during the Paris Convention in 2015, had vowed to catch up with other developed nations in the field of energy generation and power. The Centre has also made some commitments before the United Nations, saying that it will achieve the target of producing 40 percent of its power through renewable sources by the end of 2030. The overall carbon emission level in the country will also be reduced within the same period. India has so far been successful in generating 20 percent of its total power through renewable sources. The country will achieve the goal if all the states give more emphasis on renewable energy, thereby contributing towards the cause. Bengal is one of the states that has done a great deal of work on building infrastructure in the renewable energy sector. Since the Mamata Banerjee government came to power in the state, there has been a significant infrastructural reform in the energy sector. Power generation from solar energy has been given paramount importance through the launch of the ‘Aloshree’ project, a brainchild of the Chief Minister. To this end, solar panels have been set up on the rooftops of various government buildings, schools, colleges and other offices by the Power department.
Kolkata: The Meteorological Centre at Alipore has predicted that North Bengal districts may witness slight rainfall in the next few days, while the South Bengal districts are likely to stay dry.The temperature in the city may go down by a few notches. The lowest temperature in the city on Monday remained at 18.3 degree Celsius, which is 4 degrees above normal. The mercury may slide down for the next couple of days and then again start to climb up. A sudden drop in the temperature will have no major impact on the overall cold condition in the South Bengal districts, a weather official said on Monday. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAccording to the weather office, a low pressure trough has formed over some parts of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, as a result of which the flow of northwesterly wind has been interrupted. It may also bring some rainfall in the North Bengal districts. In South Bengal districts, the sky may remain partly cloudy during daytime. The people may witness misty morning in the next few days, which will disappear as the day progresses. After the low pressure trough becomes weak and its impact ceases, the mercury will again continue to soar up, paving the way for the advent of spring. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseThe Met office also predicted that temperature in all the South Bengal districts will be rising from early February and with this, the winter season will be bidding farewell. The prediction also says that the days will generally remain warm while the nights may be comparatively cold. It has been learnt that the people in North Bengal districts may continue to feel a cold condition for a few more days, as the temperature in some places may hover around 10-12 degree Celsius.
To promote the cultural heritage and weaving skills of Indian hand-made carpets and other floor coverings amongst the visiting overseas carpet buyers, the Carpet Export Promotion Council is organising its 34th India Carpet Expo (13th in Varanasi) at the Sampurnanand Sanskrit University Ground, Varanasi, under the aegis of Government of India. The event which will commence from October 10 and will last till October 13, is an ideal platform for International carpet buyers, buying houses, buying agents, architects and Indian carpet manufacturers and exporters, to meet and establish long term business relationship. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfBeing one of the largest handmade carpet fairs in Asia, the expo offers a unique platform for the buyers to source the best handmade carpets, rugs and other floor coverings under one roof. It has become a popular destination worldwide for handmade carpets. India’s unique capability in adapting to any type of design, colour, quality and size as per the specifications of the carpet buyers has made it a household name in International market. The carpet industry uses diverse raw-materials from various ports of India i.e. wool, silk, manmade fibre, jute, cotton and various blends of different yarns. Economists believe that this industry have immense potential for growth, both in production and exports. Also, it is environment friendly and does not use scarce and perishable energy resources. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveOver the years, the India Carpet Expo has established itself as a great sourcing platform for the carpet buyers from all over the globe. The prime objective of the Council in holding the Expo in Varanasi, the major Carpet producing belt, is to provide ‘unique pick and choose’ business opportunity to all overseas carpet buyers. It is the endeavor of the Council to provide exclusive business environment to the carpet importers as well as manufacturers and exporters. The Council has allotted stands to 274 participants in the biggest possible stand area of 6631 sq meter in ICE, during October 2017. The event will be inaugurated on October 10, by Ajay Tamta, Minister of State for Textiles, Government of India, in the august presence of Shantmanu, IAS, Development Commissioner (Handicrafts) and other Senior Government officials from the Central and State Governments.It is expected that around 500 reputed overseas carpet buyers, from almost 58 countries mainly from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Chile, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Turkey, U.K., USA etc. have registered themselves for attending the Expo. It would be worthwhile to mention that buyers from new countries like Bulgaria, Israel, Mauritius, Taiwan, Vietnam are also attending the mega Expo to do serious business with Indian exporters/manufacturers. This will ultimately benefit over two million weavers/artisans employed in this highly labour intensive rural based cottage industry.Carpet Export Promotion Council (CEPC) is not only inviting and incentivizing the wholesale buyers but is also providing a two-nights complimentary stay in a hotel at Varanasi for attending the India Carpet Expo. Mahavir Pratap Sharma, Chairman, said that this exhibition and buyer-seller meet will be taking Indian exports of handmade carpets to greater and newer heights. Siddh Nath Singh, first Vice-Chairman, Umer Hameed, second Vice-Chairman and all Members of COA, CEPC are confident that the Expo will generate good business for the artisans and weavers from around the globe.