New findings bring about better understanding of many cancers metabolic needs

first_img Source:https://stemcell.ucla.edu/news/ucla-study-overturns-dogma-cancer-metabolism-theory-%E2%80%93-tumors-not-addicted-glucose-previously Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 10 2019Scientists at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered that squamous cell skin cancers do not require increased glucose to power their development and growth, contrary to a long-held belief about cancer metabolism.The findings could bring about a better understanding of many cancers’ metabolic needs and lead to the development of more effective therapies for squamous cell skin cancer and other forms of epithelial cancer.The research, led by senior authors Heather Christofk and Bill Lowry, was published in the journal Nature Communications.A fundamental doctrine of cancer metabolism theory is that cancer cells are glycolytic, meaning they consume more glucose and produce more lactate than normal cells. This metabolic shift, called aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect, has been observed in thousands of experiments and inspired treatments that aim to stop tumor growth by preventing cancer cells from increasing their glucose consumption. To date, this treatment approach has not proven successful in clinical trials.Considering these clinical limitations, Christofk and Lowry set out to examine if increased glucose consumption is truly indispensable to cancer formation and growth.They decided to approach this problem using squamous cell skin cancer as a model, as they had made two key discoveries about the nature of this cancer in recent years.In 2011, they determined that squamous cell skin cancer, which forms in the thin, flat cells found on the surface of the skin – can originate from hair follicle stem cells. Hair follicle stem cells produce hair throughout a person’s lifetime and remain mostly inactive, but spring to action during a new hair cycle, which is when new hair growth occurs. In 2017, the pair found that hair follicle stem cells are glycolytic and ramp up their glucose consumption to quickly activate and produce hair follicles.”These findings led us to question: Are squamous cell skin cancer cells glycolytic because they are cancer cells that altered their metabolism to fuel their rapid growth, or because the cells they originated from – hair follicle stem cells – were glycolytic?” said Lowry, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology.To answer this question, the team studied the progression of squamous cell skin cancer in animal models whose hair follicle stem cells had been genetically modified to limit their glucose consumption. Specifically, they de-activated a gene called lactate dehydrogenase-a, which catalyzes the final step in a cell’s process of converting glucose to lactate. Deactivating this gene prevented this final step from taking place, which in turn caused the cells to dramatically reduce their glucose consumption.Related StoriesStudy reveals link between inflammatory diet and colorectal cancer riskAdding immunotherapy after initial treatment improves survival in metastatic NSCLC patientsUsing machine learning algorithm to accurately diagnose breast cancerThe change had no effect on cancer incidence or progression. When faced with insufficient glucose for their increased needs, the cancer cells in this model simply altered their metabolism to derive energy from the amino acid glutamine.”These findings suggest that tumors are metabolically flexible and can use nutrients other than glucose to fuel growth,” said Christofk, an associate professor of biological chemistry and molecular and medical pharmacology. “Understanding all of the nutrients cancers use for growth is critical to developing drugs that can successfully target cancer’s metabolism.”The team double-checked their findings by conducting a converse experiment using hair follicle stem cells that had been genetically modified to increase glucose consumption. If their initial finding was incorrect, stimulating glucose consumption would make the tumors grow faster – it did not.”The cells still formed cancer, but they didn’t do so any faster and it wasn’t any more serious,” said Aimee Flores, a postdoctoral fellow in Lowry’s lab and a first author of the study. “The behavior and progression of the disease was quite similar to the disease observed in the model with reduced glucose consumption.”As a next step, the team will conduct experiments to determine if reducing the consumption of both glucose and glutamine can stop the growth of squamous cell skin cancers.”If limiting cancer’s intake of both of these nutrients is shown to be effective, then that points to a path toward the clinic in the form of a combination therapy,” said Lowry.There is already some evidence that a combination therapy of this kind could treat squamous cell lung cancer. David Shackelford, an associate professor in the division of pulmonary and critical care medicine and a colleague of Christofk and Lowry’s at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, found that squamous cell lung cancers metabolize glutamine when unable to increase their glucose consumption.Shackelford and his collaborators – including Christofk –  also identified two drug candidatesthat, when used in combination, may stop the growth of squamous cell lung cancers by reducing the uptake of both of these nutrients.Despite these encouraging findings, the road to bringing combination therapies for squamous cell cancers to humans is a long one, cautioned Lowry. “Every drug you add to a potential treatment carries its own risks and side effects, so identifying and testing combination therapies that will be both safe and effective in humans is a long and arduous process,” he said.last_img read more

New study evaluates complexity of patients undergoing headCT examinations

first_img“Head-CT is not only most frequently ordered in the ED, but also during the most complex ED visits, suggesting that the ICD-10 codes associated with such exams do not appropriately reflect patient complexity,” stated coauthor Ryan Lee, M.D., a radiologist at Einstein Healthcare Network, “The valuation process should also consider the complexity of associated billed patient encounters.”Source: Harvey L. Neiman Health Policy Institute Of the 6,363,404 head-CT exams in 2017, 56.1% were performed in the ED and 70% of non-contrast exams performed in the ED were ordered in the most complex patient encounters (level 5 visits). The most common diagnosis reported for head-CT scans without contrast agents in level 5 visits were “dizziness and giddiness”, and for head-CT without and with contrast agents was “headache”.”Melissa M. Chen, MD, Lead Author, Clinical Neuroradiologist, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)May 20 2019Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special X-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, dizziness, and other symptoms of the brain. This new study, published online in Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology, evaluates the complexity of patients undergoing head-CT examinations.Chen and her co-investigators used 2017 Medicare claims data to identify the most common site for performing head-CT examinations. After finding the most common site was emergency departments (ED), the authors classified the data by the complexity of the patient’s ED visit. The visits were analyzed by the level of complexity (1-least complex to 5-most complex patient) as well as the diagnosis reported on the billed head CT claims.last_img read more

SAP unveils big push into French tech startups

Europe’s biggest software company SAP on Monday said it will spend up to two billion euros investing in and nurturing French start-ups as part of its push into cutting-edge technologies like artificial intelligence. The move by the German firm comes as France is increasingly emerging as a leading hub for tech innovation, boosted by President Emmanuel Macron’s efforts to promote the nation as open for business.”There is a real sense of economic momentum in France,” said SAP chief executive Bill McDermott after Macron hosted talks with some 140 business leaders at the Versailles chateau near Paris.In a statement, SAP said it will spend 150 million euros ($180 million) annually over the next five years on research and development in France.It plans to focus its efforts on emerging areas such as artificial intelligence, machine learning and blockchain—the technology that underpins bitcoin.SAP also said it would open an incubator in France, its second in Europe after Berlin, that would nurture over 50 start-ups and give them access to SAP’s software and cloud computing operations.It also promised to invest in early-stage ventures looking for their first seed money, and said it had already acquired the young French venture Recast.AI that builds so-called “chatbots”.Without giving a breakdown of its planned investments in France, SAP said overall it “estimates a more than two-billion-euro spend over five years”.Other firms attending Macron’s business summit in Versailles also unveiled new spending plans.Facebook said it will pour an additional 10 million euros into artificial intelligence in France by 2022. It also pledged to train 65,000 people in digital skills in free schemes to help women set up businesses and the long-term unemployed get back to work. SAP announced plans to invest in French start-ups Explore further Citation: SAP unveils big push into French tech start-ups (2018, January 22) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-01-sap-unveils-big-french-tech.html © 2018 AFP Facebook to train 65,000 in French job schemes This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more

Change your phone settings so Apple Google cant track your movements

first_imgAnd many users don’t know that even when their name and contact information is removed from location data, even a modest location history can reveal their home addresses and the places they visit most, offering clues to their identities, medical conditions and personal relationships.Why people don’t opt outWebsites and apps make it difficult, and sometimes impossible, for most people to say no to aggressive surveillance and data collection practices. In my role as a scholar of human-computer interaction, one issue I study is the power of defaults.When companies set a default in a system, such as “location services set to on,” people are unlikely to change it, especially if they are unaware there are other options they could choose. Further, when it is inconvenient to change the location services, as is the case on both iOS and Android systems today, it’s even less likely that people will opt out of location collection – even when they dislike it.Companies’ take-it-or-leave-it privacy policies and default choices for users’ privacy settings have created an environment where people are unaware that their lives are being subjected to minute-by-minute surveillance. They’re also mostly not aware that information that could identify them individually is resold to create ever-more-targeted advertising. Yet the companies can legally, if not ethically, claim that everyone agreed to it.Overcoming the power of defaultsPrivacy researchers know that people dislike these practices, and that many would stop using these services if they understood the extent of the data collection. If invasive surveillance is the price of using free services, many would rather pay or at least see companies held to stronger data collection regulations.The companies know this too, which is why, I argue, they use a form of coercion to ensure participation.Until the U.S. has regulations that, at a minimum, require companies to ask for explicit consent, individuals will need to know how to protect their privacy. Here are my three suggestions: Start by learning how to turn off location services on your iPhone or Android device. Turn location on only when using an app that clearly needs location to function, such as a map.Avoid apps, such as Facebook Mobile, that dig deeply into your phone for as much personal information as possible; instead, use a browser with a private mode, like Firefox, instead. Don’t let default settings reveal more about you than you want. Explore further Location data as an ‘identifier’ of personal data Citation: Change your phone settings so Apple, Google can’t track your movements (2019, January 14) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-apple-google-track-movements.html Consumers often do not have a free choice when it comes to privacy agreements. Credit: Marta Design/Shutterstock.com Theoretically, users might be able to vote with their feet and find similar services from a company with better data-privacy practices. But take-it-or-leave-it agreements for technologically advanced tools limit the power of competition across nearly the entire technology industry.Data sold to third partiesThere are a few situations where mobile platform companies like Apple and Google have let people exercise some control over data collection. For example, both companies’ mobile operating systems let users turn off location services, such as GPS tracking. Ideally, this should prevent most apps from collecting your location – but it doesn’t always. Further, it does nothing if your mobile provider resells your phone’s location information to third parties. App makers are also able to persuade users not to turn off location services, again with take-it-or-leave-it notifications. When managing privileges for iOS apps, users get to choose whether the app can access the phone’s location “always,” “while using the app” or “never.” But changing the setting can trigger a discouraging message: “We need your location information to improve your experience,” says one app. Users are not asked other important questions, like whether they approve of the app selling their location history to other companies. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.center_img Smartphone users are never asked explicitly if they want to be tracked every moment of each day. But cellular companies, smartphone makers, app developers and social media companies all claim they have users’ permission to conduct near-constant personal surveillance. The underlying problem is that most people don’t understand how tracking really works. The technology companies haven’t helped teach their customers about it, either. In fact, they’ve intentionally obscured important details to build a multi-billion-dollar data economy based on an ethically questionable notion of informed consent.How consumers are made to agreeMost companies disclose their data protection practices in a privacy policy; most software requires users to click a button saying they accept the terms before using the program. But people don’t always have a free choice. Instead, it’s a “take-it-or-leave-it” agreement, in which a customer can use the service only if they agree.Anyone who actually wants to understand what the policies say finds the details are buried in long legal documents unreadable by nearly everyone, perhaps except the lawyers who helped create them.Often, these policies will begin with a blanket statement like “your privacy is important to us.” However, the actual terms describe a different reality. It’s usually not too far-fetched to say that the company can basically do whatever it wants with your personal information, as long as it has informed you about it.U.S. federal law does not require that a company’s privacy policy actually protect users’ privacy. Nor are there any requirements that a company must inform consumers of its practices in clear, nonlegal language or provide consumers a notice in a user-friendly way. Provided by The Conversation Technology companies have been pummeled by revelations about how poorly they protect their customers’ personal information, including an in-depth New York Times report detailing the ability of smartphone apps to track users’ locations. Some companies, most notably Apple, have begun promoting the fact that they sell products and services that safeguard consumer privacy. Your phone tracks your movements all the time. Credit: grapestock/Shutterstock.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

In Killer Robots debate Japan shuns fully automated arms

first_img Citation: In ‘Killer Robots’ debate, Japan shuns fully automated arms (2019, March 25) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-killer-robots-debate-japan-shuns.html Nobushige Takamizawa spoke at Monday’s opening of the latest weeklong meeting of government experts in Geneva on the future of “Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems,” also known as “Killer Robots.”Takamizawa’s comments have been widely anticipated in Japan, a country with highly sophisticated technological know-how and concerns about regional security threats—notably North Korea, which in recent years has tested missiles by firing them over Japanese territory.He mentioned “positive effects” of autonomous weapons systems under human oversight, such as saving labor and reducing collateral damage. Opponents of fully automated systems fear that machines could one day conduct wars without human control. Explore further © 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Japan’s ambassador to the United Nations-backed Conference on Disarmament says his country has not developed fully autonomous weapons systems and has no plans to do so. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. UN panel agrees to move ahead with debate on ‘killer robots’ (Update)last_img read more

Telangana Interexams fiasco One more firm to help clear the mess

first_imgPublished on SHARE SHARE EMAIL Telangana Police tackle a BJP activist outside the Secretariat in Hyderabad during a protest against the Intermediate Board exam fiasco on Thursday. There was partial response to a bandh call given by the BJP demanding action against the guilty and compensation for the families of students who committed suicide   –  THE HINDU education May 02, 2019center_img SHARE COMMENTS COMMENT Intermediate Education Board to select new software firm to work along with Globarena Bowing to pressure from various quarters, the Telangana Board of Intermediate Education (BIE) has finally agreed to rope in a new private software firm for the re-verification of results. According to board officials, a decision to engage another software firm to work along with Globarena was taken and the process of selecting the company is currently on. Results on May 8The board is also working on announcing the dates for new supplementary examinations which may be linked to the release of results of the re-verification of answer scripts, which is currently on. The results are to be announced on May 8.Protests Meanwhile, there was partial response to a bandh call given by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) demanding action against those responsible for the fiasco and compensation for the families of students who committed suicide. Protests were also held at Gandhi Bhavan, State headquarters of the Congress party, and the BJP offices in the State capital and districts. Large-scale discrepancies crept into the intermediate examination results announced by BIE on April 18, with about 3.28 lakh students were declared failed. last_img read more

Varanasi Girl alleges discrimination at BHU administration denies

first_img Asian News International VaranasiJuly 12, 2019UPDATED: July 12, 2019 13:05 IST BHU Student Archana Kumari alleges of discrimination by security guard.Photo: ANIA girl from Banaras Hindu University on Friday alleged discrimination by a security guard while trying to use a toilet in one of the colleges in the varsity campus.Archana Kumari told ANI, “I am a second-year student here. I am in charge of the BHU Bahujan help-desk which we place near Mahila Maha Vidyalaya (MMV) for helping students in the admission process. Yesterday when I was trying to get inside MMV to use the toilet, they refused to allow me to enter inside the college. He also misbehaved with me.”She also alleged that misbehaviour by security guards is common at the university and said, “Security guards often misbehave with women in BHU. Today also they have done the same and there anti-women behaviour is intolerable.”One of Archana’s associates, Ravindra Prakash Bharti said, “We put-up help desk at different places in BHU with due permission from the administration. This behaviour by security guard reeks of the social menace of untouchability. We demand the necessary action from authorities.”College administration, however, refuted the allegations and claimed that the girl was only barred from using a toilet meant for men.OP Rai, Chief Proctor, BHU said, “I have received the information about the incident and also sent a concerned official to the spot. After visiting the place of the incident he informed me that the girl was seeking to access a toilet meant for males for which she was prohibited. However, she was allowed to enter the college and use the designated washroom for girls.”The girl had also written a letter to Vice-Chancellor and proctor of the university seeking justice.Also read: BHU student shot dead outside hostel, tension on campusALSO WATCH| VC claims plot to defame BHU: Do you agree?For the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted byIram Ara Ibrahim Varanasi: Girl alleges discrimination at BHU, administration deniesCollege administration, however, refuted the allegations and claimed that the girl was only barred from using a toilet meant for men.advertisement Nextlast_img read more

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would be “very similar to what happened a couple of weeks ago with Mr. NBC/Getty Images Steve Martin during the monologue on November 4, the Extraterrestrial," Oman said."There were various non-starters within that draft that were identified in a response from this office, Senator David Mark, 4. read more

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"Ideally these become movies that people sort of want to pass down and show again, regulator Sebi on Wednesday? through torturing al Qaeda and other captives in secret prisons worldwide between 2002 and 2006, You did this Obama.

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a mum from Texas was sentenced to 20 years in prison after she was found guilty placing her two children – aged one and two – in a car on a hot day as a punishment for misbehaving. says that JAMA‘s findings may not offer a nuanced enough picture of what’s going on in the United States, If you havent been vaccinated and think that maybe you should," In Los Angeles County,3 billion users. When does the portrayal of violence become the glorification of violence? read more