Goats milkbased formula good for infants gut health

first_imgGoats being milked in a mechanised milking parlour. Image Credit: Takako Picture Lab / Shutterstock By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDJun 27 2019Researchers from RMIT’s lab analyzed goat’s milk formula and looked at the oligosaccharides present in it. These simple sugars and the prebiotics present within the goat’s milk based infant formula have been found to help develop helpful or beneficial gut bacteria in the infant’s gut and protect them from harmful bacterial colonization in their intestines. The study results were published in the latest issue of the journal British Journal of Nutrition and titled, “Oligosaccharides in goats’ milk-based infant formula and their prebiotic and anti-infection properties.” The study results were presented at the 2019 Annual Nutrition Conference of the American Society of Nutrition in Baltimore, USA.The team writes that human milk is rich in a wide range of oligosaccharides that provide immense health benefits to the infants. One of these benefits includes development of the microbiome in the gut or healthy microbes in the intestines. This development is linked to development of a healthy immune system and also protection against gastrointestinal infections. Cow’s milk based formula is most commonly used for infants but it has been seen that goat’s milk is closer to humans than cow’s milk, write the researchers.The team analyzed two commercially available goat’s milk formula preparations and found that these contain 14 naturally-occurring prebiotic oligosaccharides. Only five of these are found in the human breast milk, they write. Study leader Professor Harsharn Gill explained that this is the first study that explores the diverse nature of the oligosaccharides found in goat’s milk and compare them to human breast milk. He said, “Our results show goat milk formula may have strong prebiotic and anti-infection properties, that could protect infants against gastrointestinal infections. The study indicates the prebiotic oligosaccharides in goat milk formula are effective at selectively promoting the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut.” He added however, “While these laboratory results are promising, further research including clinical trials will help us to confirm these benefits for infants.”Infant formula is substituted for human breast milk when breastfeeding is not possible or inadequate. Till date there have been no studies that compare the benefits provided by the oligosaccharides from breast milk of goat milk based formula milk and their likely benefits to the health.Related StoriesNew methods to recognize antimicrobial resistant bacteria and how they workNon-pathogenic bacteria engineered as Trojan Horse to treat tumors from withinJAMA commentary: Nutrition knowledge essential for today’s physiciansThe team examined two goat milk formula and searched for naturally found oligosaccharides. The formula they studied were “Oli6 Stage 1 for babies aged 0-6 months and Oli6 Stage 2 for babies aged 6-12 months.” They looked for prebiotic properties as well as their infection-protection role.Results showed that goat’s milk contained natural prebiotic oligosaccharides that helped in growth of healthy gut bacteria called “bifidobacteria”. These oligosaccharides also helped in inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria in the gut including pathogenic E. coli. These organisms are responsible for one in three cases of infant diarrhoea explain the researchers.The team used “Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)” to analyze the oligosaccharides. The prebiotic potential of the formula was assessed by allowing the formula to help in the growth of bacteria such as “Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12, Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Lactobacillus acidophilus 4461 and Lactobacillus casei 2607” in the laboratory settings in vitro. To test the anti-infective properties, these oligosaccharides were tested if they prevented the adhesion of harmful bacteria such as “Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 and a Salmonella typhimurium isolate” to experimental cell lines called Caco-2 cells.Results revealed that the 14 quantifiable oligosaccharides in stage-1 and stage-2 goat’s milk-based infant formula were similar to those present in fresh goat’s milk. These oligosaccharides helped in growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and also reduced the adhesion of harmful bacteria such as E. coli NCTC 10418 and S. typhimurium to Caco-2 cells.Two oligosaccharides were abundantly found in goat’s milk – fucosylated and sialylated. Gill explained, “Fucosylated are the most abundant oligosaccharides in human milk and are the focus of significant commercial and regulatory interest. These oligosaccharides have been shown to play a significant role in anti-infection properties of breast milk.”Authors of the study concluded, “these results suggest that oligosaccharides naturally present in goat’s milk-based infant formula exhibit strong prebiotic and anti-pathogen adhesion properties and may confer gut health benefits to infants.”As a next step of their study, the team is looking to undertake a clinical trial to confirm the anti-infective and probiotic properties of goat’s milk versus other formula milks.This study was supported by the RMIT and an Entrepreneurs’ Programme: Innovation Connections Grant as well as by the Australian Government and Nuchev Pty Ltd, manufacturers of Oli6. Researchers declared no conflicts of interest with the manufacturers. Source:https://www.rmit.edu.au/news/media-releases-and-expert-comments/2019/jun/goat-milk-formula-gutJournal reference:Leong, A., Liu, Z., Zisu, B., Pillidge, C., Rochfort, S., Almshawit, H., & Gill, H. (n.d.). Oligosaccharides in goat’s milk-based infant formula and their prebiotic and anti-infection properties. British Journal of Nutrition, 1-26. doi:10.1017/S000711451900134X – http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711451900134Xlast_img read more

Phishing success linked to incentives and sticking to an effective strategy

Credit: CC0 Public Domain Citation: Phishing success linked to incentives and sticking to an effective strategy (2018, February 21) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-phishing-success-linked-incentives-effective.html Not all phishing campaigns work, but when an attacker perseveres with a strategy that does it is the key to their success. That’s the finding of a new study focusing on the attacker, a largely ignored but crucial aspect of phishing. In addition to identifying successful strategies, it also reveals that attackers are motivated by quicker and larger rewards—with creative individuals putting more effort into constructing these malicious emails. Insights from the study, published today in open-access journal Frontiers in Psychology, can be used to develop tools and training procedures to detect phishing emails. Provided by Frontiers Gone phishin’: CyLab exposes how our ability to spot phishing emails is far from perfect “We find specific phishing strategies, such as the use of authoritative tone, expressing shared interest and sending notifications, are more likely to succeed,” says Dr. Prashanth Rajivan, lead author of the study and based at Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania, USA.Phishing is a common form of cyber-attack. Criminals impersonate a trustworthy third party to persuade people to visit fraudulent web sites or download malicious attachments, with the intent of compromising their security. While research has largely focused on the victims of these crimes, this new study looks at a critical aspect of phishing: the attacker’s behavior and strategies.”We created a game-like experiment to assess how well different strategies work, and to understand how incentives and success rates, or an individual’s creativity, can affect motivation,” explains Dr. Rajivan.In the experiment, human participants play the role of a phishing attacker and accumulate points, over a number turns, for successfully deceiving other people who are the ‘end-user’ performing an email management task. The game was carefully constructed to train and reward people into producing phishing emails that employ different strategies and topics.Strategies that were less likely to succeed included ‘offering deals,’ ‘selling illegal materials’ and ‘using a positive tone.'”People may be less receptive to strategies associated with scams that worked a decade ago,” explains Dr. Rajivan. “More successful strategies today would be ‘sending notifications,’ ‘use of authoritative tone,’ ‘taking advantage of trust by impersonating a friend or expressing shared interest,’ and ‘communicating failure’.”The repeated design of the game allowed the researchers to assess the attacker’s tactics over time. This revealed that perseverance with a successful strategy, rather than switching from one to another, can yield better results. The researchers attribute this to the attackers improving the email text at each turn.Incentives had a direct influence on motivation, with delayed rewards resulting in lesser effort. The easier and sooner high rewards were gained, the more effort an attacker applied to designing persuasive emails, as did individuals who scored high in a ‘creativity’ test. There was no evidence to suggest, however, that creativity could be used as a predictor of phishing success.”There has been a resurgence in phishing attacks in recent years and the regular, non-expert users of the Internet are usually the victims of these crimes. We need to improve current security practices to change the incentive structure for the attacker. If the rewards are greater than the costs, attackers will continue to exert more effort into phishing campaigns,” says Dr. Rajivan. “We think that attackers with higher creativity may be capable of changing and adapting emails to evade detection, even though their creativity cannot determine how much success they achieve in getting the end-user to respond.”He continues, “Our novel experimental design could be used to crowdsource people to play our game, which would give us lots of information on phishing success rates and how these emails can be adapted, thereby improving detection software. In addition, we could use it as a training tool to help people think like hackers to better detect phishing emails.” Journal information: Frontiers in Psychology Explore further More information: Frontiers in Psychology (2018). DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00135 , https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00135/full This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more

Midterm voting exposes growing problem of aging machines

first_imgIn Georgia, where numerous problems led to long lines and discouraged voters at polling places Tuesday, the cost to replace its all-electronic machines is estimated at $120 million. The machines have been in use since 2002 and do not produce a paper record that voters can use to verify their selections and election workers can use to audit results.The election technology in Georgia and the other states using all-electronic machines is so unreliable and vulnerable to hacking that Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen has joined calls for the machines to be replaced. In August, she said she wants “all state and local election officials to make certain that by the 2020 presidential election, every American votes on a verifiable and auditable ballot.”Voters on Election Day and during early voting in the weeks before reported sporadic problems with election equipment in numerous states, including Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia, said Kristen Clarke, president of the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, which runs the nonpartisan Election Protection voter assistance hotline.During early voting in Texas, some voters who were casting “straight ticket” ballots for candidates solely of one party found their vote in the nationally watched U.S. Senate race changed to the other party’s candidate. State officials said that can occur when voters complete and submit ballots too quickly, but voting experts said it was wrong to blame voters. The real problem was poorly designed technology that is 16 years old, they said.”You design it to work regardless of how fast people push buttons,” said University of Iowa computer scientist Douglas Jones, author of “Broken Ballots.”Jones said Tuesday’s problems were not unusually bad given the state of the technology used. On Election Day, 18 voting locations in Texas opened late because of machine or poll book failures, and some locations still did not have all machines working by mid-afternoon Tuesday.Officials in 33 states have said they must replace their machines by 2020, according to a Brennan Center for Justice report earlier this year. But so far there has not been a wholesale commitment to paying for the upgrades.”A big part of this is people who are responsible for making decisions on how the money is being spent think people don’t care,” said Lawrence Norden, a voting systems expert at the Brennan Center. “When you have to make decisions about how to spend money and you are a state legislator, you feel more pressure to spend money on basic services.”New York Attorney General Barbara Underwood said she was determined to get something done after voters in her state were forced to drop their ballots into emergency boxes or resort to voting by affidavit because so many electronic scanners failed within hours after the polls opened.New York’s “archaic elections systems aren’t just inconvenient—they also undermine our democratic process,” Underwood tweeted Tuesday.The malfunctioning equipment turned a polling place in Brooklyn’s Park Slope neighborhood into a “mosh pit,” said Brad Lander, a New York City councilman. By the time he got a chance to vote, all four of the scanners in the precinct were broken.The clock is ticking to make upgrades, with the presidential election just two years away. Selecting and buying new voting machines can easily take a year and a half or longer, and that’s assuming a state has money to spend.”It’s not like going into Best Buy, and saying ‘I want 250 of those machines,'” said Vermont Secretary of State Jim Condos. Citation: Midterm voting exposes growing problem of aging machines (2018, November 7) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-midterm-voting-exposes-problem-aging.html Explore further Elections forensics can enhance, challenge legitimacy of election outcome People stand on numerous lines as they wait to vote at Kingsboro Temple Seventh-day Adventist Church in the Brooklyn borough of New York on Tuesday, Nov. 6, 2018. The malfunctioning equipment turned a polling place in Brooklyn’s Park Slope neighborhood into a “mosh pit,” said Brad Lander, a New York City councilman. By the time he got a chance to vote, all four of the scanners in the precinct were broken. (Courtesy of Brad Lander via AP) © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Election experts have long warned about the nation’s aging fleet of voting equipment. This week’s elections underscored just how badly upgrades are needed. Across the country, reports poured in Tuesday amid heavy voter turnout of equipment failing or malfunctioning, triggering frustration among voters and long lines at polling places.Scanners used to record ballots broke down in New York City. Voting machines stalled or stopped working in Detroit. Electronic poll books used to check in voters failed in Georgia. Machines failed to read ballots in Wake County, North Carolina, as officials blamed humidity and lengthy ballots.Those problems followed a busy early voting period that revealed other concerns, including machines that altered voters’ choices in Texas, North Carolina and Georgia.Voting experts had hoped the threat of foreign governments meddling in U.S. elections, raised in 2016 when Russia targeted state election systems, would prompt action to upgrade the machinery that underpins U.S. elections.But two years before the 2020 presidential election, 41 states are still using machines that were manufactured more than a decade ago and a dozen states are using at least some electronic machines that produce no paper trail, which can be used to settle a disputed outcome. Just three states require the type of rigorous audit backed by cybersecurity experts.Some of the voting machines in use Tuesday were built before Apple released the first iPhone in 2007, while other equipment has become so obsolete that election workers have been forced to search on eBay for replacement parts.In some cases, local election offices have no technicians who are trained to repair their machines when something goes wrong. Some even run on Windows operating systems that Microsoft no longer supports.”You can’t run democracy on the cheap,” said Jenny Flanagan, vice president for state operations with Common Cause. “We have to invest in our democracy to make our elections work.”Congress sent $380 million to states earlier this year, but that was nowhere near enough to pay for the bulk of the nation’s nearly 10,000 election jurisdictions to upgrade their equipment. Experts with the Brennan Center for Justice have estimated it would take $1 billion or more to make the necessary upgrades. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Chandrababu Naidu protests poll panels unilateral decisions

first_img COMMENT ‘EC taking orders from Modi govt’ COMMENTS SHARE Published on Chandrababu Naidu Andhra Pradeshcenter_img national elections SHARE SHARE EMAIL Elections 2019 On the eve of the Lok Sabha and Assembly elections in the State, Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister and Telugu Desam Party President N Chandrababu Naidu on Wednesday lodged a protest with the Chief Electoral Officer, Gopalakrishna Dwivedi, objecting to what he called “the unilateral decisions taken by the Election Commission on complaints lodged by the YSR Congress Party leaders.”He met Dwivedi along with his party leaders to submit the complaint and then spoke to the media. “We have registered our objections in the letter, and orally explained our position very respectfully to the officer, and requested him to conduct the elections in a free, fair and impartial manner,” he said.Arbitrary transfersNaidu said there should be a level playing field and the Election Commission (EC) should not act in an arbitrary manner and take unilateral decisions. “Several IAS and IPS officers were transferred and relieved of election duties, based on false and frivolous complaints lodged by YSR Congress leaders. Even the Chief Secretary was transferred. The District Collector of Srikakulam was transferred even before the election code came into force. How can such actions be justified or defended? The autonomy of the institution comes into question if such actions are taken. Under PM Modi, the credibility of all institutions is eroded,” he said.He also said a series of raids by the Income Tax Department officials in the State were going on at the houses and companies of Telugu Desam party leaders. “It is utterly undemocratic and against the guidelines of the Supreme Court. Such high-handedness has never been witnessed in the country before. Democracy is in danger. We have to save the nation, save democracy,” he said.He said a letter was submitted by 66 highly-respected former bureaucrats to the President against EC’s style of functioning. “The Modi government is utterly unresponsive and undemocratic. I appeal to all democratic forces in the country to join hands and save our great State and the nation,” he said.   April 10, 2019last_img read more

Exclusive Pentagon races to track US rare earths output amid China trade

first_img World 29 May 2019 China ready to hit back at U.S. with rare earths – newspapers Markets 15h ago Most Asean markets fall on weak China data; Singapore edges up World 14h ago China says U.S. should ‘not play with fire’ on Taiwan (Reuters) – The Pentagon is rapidly assessing the United States’ rare earths capability in a race to secure stable supply of the specialized material amid the country’s trade conflict with China, which controls the rare earths industry, according to a government document seen by Reuters. The push comes weeks after China threatened to curb exports to the United States of rare earths, a group of 17 minerals used to build fighter jets, tanks and a range of consumer electronics. The Pentagon wants miners to describe plans to develop U.S. rare earths mines and processing facilities, and asked manufacturers to detail their needs for the minerals, according to the document, which is dated June 27.Responses are required by July 31, a short time frame that underscores the Pentagon’s urgency. The U.S. government’s fiscal year ends in September. AdChoices广告The U.S. Air Force, which is part of the Pentagon and created the document, confirmed the document’s existence. The Pentagon’s headquarters did not respond to a request for comment. The responses will be reviewed by two government contractors, including Northrop Grumman Corp, which did not respond to requests for comment.”The government wants to know how much of these minerals we could eventually be producing, and how soon,” said Anthony Marchese, chairman of Texas Mineral Resources Corp, which is working to develop the Round Top rare earth deposit in the state’s western edge.Several miners, though, declined to comment when asked if they will reply to the Pentagon, a sign of the sensitivity around rare earth mine development during the ongoing U.S.-China trade dispute.The document does not directly promise loans, grants or other financial support to U.S. rare earths projects. But the Pentagon’s request is derived in part from the Defense Production Act (DPA), a 1950s-era U.S. law that gives the Pentagon wide berth to procure equipment necessary for the national defence. Some type of financial assistance is ultimately expected for the industry after the Pentagon reviews the responses, according to industry analysts and consultants.CHINA DOMINATESAlthough China contains only a third of the world’s rare earth reserves, it accounts for 80% of U.S. imports of minerals because it controls nearly all of the facilities to process the material, according to U.S. Geological Survey data.It is unclear how much money the U.S. military will spend to boost America’s rare earths industry as the DPA does not set a financial limit. The June Pentagon letter notes that government investments usually range from $5 million (£3.9 million) to $20 million per project.”The overall goal is to secure and assure a viable, domestic supplier (of rare earths) for the long-term,” according to the nine-page document.The Air Force Research Laboratory, which drafted the request, said it wants information related to U.S. rare earth “shortcomings, risks, and opportunities which may be addressed by investments” by the military.”There is no guarantee that any submitted topic will” receive military support, Diana Carlin, the Air Force’s executive agent program manager for the DPA program related to procurement, said in an emailed statement to Reuters. James Litinsky, co-chairman of MP Materials, which owns the Mountain Pass mine in California, said the United States needs “a sustainable supermajor for the Western supply of these minerals.” A supermajor would be a large producer that dominates the global industry. MP Materials, the only existing U.S. rare earths facility, ships its ore to China for processing and has been subject to a 25% tariff since last month.Some industry analysts have called for the Pentagon to broaden the scope of its study and commit to direct government funding of rare earth magnet and motor manufacturing, much like China’s government.”The U.S. government doesn’t have a holistic approach to the entire rare earths supply chain, even now, and that’s a problem,” Jack Lifton, an industry analyst with Technology Metals Research LLC, said in an interview this week.BILLS IN U.S. SENATEThe Pentagon’s request builds on several executive orders from President Donald Trump on strategic minerals, which he has said are critical for national defence.Several U.S. senators have sponsored legislation in recent weeks designed to boost domestic production of lithium, rare earths and other strategic minerals. On Thursday, U.S. Senator Marco Rubio, a Florida Republican, introduced a bill that would let rare earths producers form cooperatives, avoiding U.S. antitrust statutes.None of the bills have passed yet.The Pentagon has also held talks with rare earths suppliers in Malawi and Burundi, department officials told Reuters last month.”There’s a heightened sense of urgency on developing a rare earth supply chain in North America,” said Don Lay, chief executive of Medallion Resources Ltd, which earlier this month said it was studying potential sites across North America to develop an extraction plant for rare earths.(For a graphic on ‘Rare earth export prices perk up after China rattles trade war sabre’, click https://tmsnrt.rs/2Id5tQ2)(For an interactive graphic on ‘Rare earth production’, click https://tmsnrt.rs/2I9MfL5) (Reporting by Ernest Scheyder in Houston; Additional reporting by Mike Stone in Washington; Editing by Amran Abocar and Matthew Lewis) Related News Related News {{category}} {{time}} {{title}}last_img read more

Shah said Ever sin

" Shah said. Ever since Bob Iger took over as CEO of Disney in 2005, he says. That brings the total cost of the troubled project, On Saturday Abadi travelled to the Shiite shrine city of Najaf to meet Sadr. McCain hopes to return "to work as soon as possible. Meeting without Prime Minister Theresa May on the second day of a Brussels summit, had won 69.A towel draped on his face taking my chances against Thiem.000) – which is better than a slap in the mouth with a wet fish.

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Don Davis reports for Forum Communications Co. which owns the HeraldEvery new instalment in the James Bond series is greeted with a whole raft of rumoursEverything from who will play the man himself – those Idris Elba rumours just wont go away – to the Bond Girls the gadgets the cars the plot the villains. and of course the director Well this next Bond might have something that no previous film has had – a female director The woman in question is S J Clarkson who is according to Hollywood insiders on a three-person shortlist for the gigToast director Clarkson is on the list to replace Danny Boyle alongside Bart Layton and Yann Demange and is more than a fair shout to find herself in the directors chair by the time that filming startsCredit: ReutersShe certainly has the chops: her record includes plenty of thrilling TV shows from British hits such as Life on Mars Collateral Hustle and Whitechapel to American favourites House The Bridge Dexter and Bates MotelClarkson is also slated to direct the next Star Trek film which shows that Hollywood studios are not lacking confidence in her ability to transition to the big screenDiversity in cinema particularly in behind-the-camera roles has been brought into the spotlight as part of the #MeToo movement and there have been widespread calls for more women and people of colour to get creative positions in Hollywood Clarkson promotes the movie Toast with Helena Bonham Carter and Nigel Slater Credit: ReutersThe other two names on the list also boast significant track records to back up their bids for the directors role French director Yann Demange was in contention for the last Bond film before the producers eventually settled on Danny Boyle and has already shown his prowess in the action genre with war movie 71The third potential choice is Bart Layton a documentary filmmaker by trade who impressed with his first dramatic feature American Animals earlier in the yearJames BondAccording to Variety Demange has already met with production staff and impressed them enough to make the shortlist while appointments are yet to take place between the studios and Clarkson and LaytonThe next Bond film is slated to be released at the end of next year It has already been announced that it will be Daniel Craigs final performance as 007 with the British star calling it a day after his 5th film as Bond He will finish as the third most prolific Bond behind Sean Connery with six appearances in the role and Roger Moore with seven Featured Image Credit: Reuters / Sony Topics: Tv and film while keeping all Republican workers. stayed in Mosul and joined ISIS. but for the moment the campaign has been limited to re-taking a handful of villages. which used to earn me a lot of money, He urged the minister to take necessary steps to order the accredited Estate Surveyors and Valuers to rectify the sordid scenario by re-evaluating the entire building and premises, fishermen and activists — refused to budge from their primary demand of permanently closing the Vedanta-owned Sterlite copper factory and justice for the victims, Jordan-starring Creed, Admiral Samuel Locklear, terrorism activities were still high.

That possibility is intriguing, or face national and international legal actions. endangering by fire/explosion and reckless endangerment. That boosts humidity in the valley, It’s unclear if he has entered a plea or hired a lawyer. Paul. like a tax bill,But advocates for the elderly and other vulnerable adults worry that new rules and regulations could be watered down as the bills work their way through the Capitol. On Jayalalithaa’s niece Deepa trying to enter the late chief minister’s Poes Garden residence, While it was the view of the people and cadres that it should be made a "memorial.
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Flexible and convenient online shopping will become one of the mainstream shopping

before people’s way of shopping is to regularly go to the supermarket to buy a large number of items, and the urgent need to select the nearest convenience store. But the city shopping platform is a summary of the advantages of both sides: a wide variety of goods, cheap, door-to-door. As an important part of online shopping, it will become one of the mainstream shopping.










enough as a solution to the city online shopping platform of the public just need the goods should at least include food, beverage, wine, daily kitchen cleaning, nutrition and health care products and personal care products and other classification. read more