Cells Find Signal in the Noise

first_imgParents at an amusement park know the challenge of picking out their child’s voice, or even hearing their own hollering, in the noise of the crowd.  Yelling won’t help much if the rest of the crowd is yelling also.  Acoustic engineers know that raising the volume while playing back a noisy tape amplifies the noise as well as the signal.  Cells have a novel way of meeting this challenge, as two Japanese mathematical biologists discuss in PNAS.1  Cells are continuously sending and receiving chemical messages, a process called signal transduction.  Treating the cell signal transduction network like a physical system of receivers and amplifiers, the researchers noted that a cell, like an amusement park, is an intrinsically noisy place, yet some of the reactions are very sensitive.  “How cells respond properly to noisy signals by using noisy molecular networks is an important problem in elucidating the underlying ‘design principle’ of cellular systems,” they say in the introduction.  How do the sensitive reactions get their messages through all that noise? Because intracellular processes are inherently noisy, stochastic reactions process noisy signals in cellular signal transduction.  One essential feature of biological signal transduction systems is the amplification of small changes in input signals.  However, small random changes in the input signals could also be amplified, and the transduction reaction can also generate noise.  Here, we show theoretically how the abrupt response of ultrasensitive signal-transduction reactions results in the generation of large inherent noise and the high amplification of input noise.  The inherently generated noise propagates with amplification through intracellular molecular network.  We discuss how the contribution of such transmitted noise can be shown experimentally.  Our results imply that the switch-like behavior of signal transduction could be limited by noise; however, high amplification reaction could be advantageous to generate large noise, which would be essential to maintain behavioral variability.They categorized the noise as intrinsic, coming from the reaction itself, to extrinsic, coming from other reactions.  This is somewhat like hearing your own voice vs. the yelling of those around you.  The intrinsic noise has higher frequency than the extrinsic noise.  As one source of noise becomes dominant, it reaches a crossover point where the other source is less dominant.  This provides a kind of signal, or switch, which the cell can use to advantage:From our result, it can be further suggested that if the extrinsic noise dominates, the upstream reactions affect the fluctuation of the most downstream reaction, which determines the cellular behavior.  As a result, the behavioral fluctuations are made up of the contributions of the fluctuations of several upstream reactions.  On the other hand, if the intrinsic noise dominates, only the intrinsic noise of the most downstream reaction determines the behavioral fluctuations.  As a result, the behavior could be simpler than the case in which extrinsic noise is dominant….    ….Consequently, the low-frequency modulations in the downstream reactions can be affected by the behaviors of upstream reactions, whereas the high-frequency modulations are expected to be independent of upstream reactions.As a result, a bacterium can respond to chemicals in the environment, the hemoglobin in your blood can respond to changing conditions in the capillaries, genes can respond correctly to requests for expression, and complex cascades of cellular reactions can respond to the signal from any reaction in the series, in the midst of all the noise.  “Therefore,” they conclude, “the result implies that the extrinsic noise is essential to maintain the behavioral variability in wild-type bacteria.”  Their experiments related to three relatively simple reactions, and their analysis considered primarily linear response.  Many cellular reactions involve nonlinear behavior.  “In these cases,” they admit, “the relation between the response and the fluctuations can be more complicated than the relations we studied.”  The authors made no attempt to explain how these capabilities evolved.1Tatsuo Shibata and Koichi Fujimoto, “Noisy signal amplification in ultrasensitive signal transduction,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0403350102, published online before print December 29, 2004.Evolutionists accuse the intelligent design movement of never publishing anything, and then cry foul when they do (see 09/08/2004 and 12/28/2004 headlines).  Actually, there are thousands of ID papers, and they are published regularly, not in obscure outlets, but in the major, high-impact journals.  They may not mention the buzzword “intelligent design” explicitly, but they do everything the ID movement advocates: explore the design of a phenomenon as if it has a purpose, follow the evidence where it leads, and leave the philosophical or religious implications to the reader.  We regularly highlight such articles right here (see 11/10/2004, 10/27/2004, 10/27/2004, and 09/22/2004 headlines for a few recent examples).  Notice how these authors used the phrase “design principle” but had no use for the evolutionary hypothesis.  Very few papers try to explain in any detail how a complex feature evolved.  Most, if they mention evolution at all, merely assume it in passing, as if fulfilling the obligatory pinch of incense to Father Charlie (see 11/18/2004 and 11/04/2004 and 10/01/2004 recent examples).  If the criteria were rearranged with these considerations in mind, the ID movement could claim the vast majority of scientific papers as their own, and the Darwin Party would be left with a handful of just-so stories.  Demand a recount.(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Microsoft’s Global Patent: World Harmony or Legal War?

first_imgIn order to usher the patent system “into the 21st Century”, Deputy General Counsel for Microsoft Horacio Gutierrez believes that “global patent harmonization” must happen. In a recent CNET article Andrew Donoghue lists a number of opponents to Microsoft’s ever-growing patent power. The Redmond giant has been widely criticized for anti-competitive tactics and has been investigated in a number of antitrust cases. Unsurprisingly, Gutierrez’s statements for standardized patent applications and processing have struck a chord with free culture supporters.In anticipation of WIPO’s September IP Symposium Gutierrez writes, “By facing the challenges, realizing a vision, overcoming political barriers, and removing procedural obstacles we can build a global patent system that will promote innovation, enrich public knowledge, encourage competition and drive economic growth and employment. ” Contrary to this statement of patent utopia many believe that patents stifle innovation.On Competition and Procedural Obstacles Years ago Lawrence Lessig wrote, “A patent is a form of regulation. It is a government-granted monopoly – an exclusive right backed by the power of the state…A government employee decides whether an idea is novel, useful and nonobvious [then] guarantees the inventor an exclusive right to the idea for 20 years.” Meanwhile, antitrust law is the state’s effort to prohibit monopolies and anti-competitive actions. So would we see a universal patent process simply negate antitrust law? Or would we see an increase in political jockeying and legal action in the not-so-distant future? Of course, these questions are only valid to a potential market leader like Microsoft – a company with the manpower, resources and intention to actually develop its ideas. On Innovation and EmploymentAs I write this article, thousands of patent trolls scan technology blogs and computer science papers in the hopes of licensing their next jackpot. These people have no intention of furthering innovation or improving the economy. While it’s unethical to license the inevitable, it’s entirely legal. In many cases, patents are no longer considered a self-defense mechanism, but rather a business model. While it might create incentive for actual innovators, global patent standardization would also make it easier for patent trolls to sue for universal damages (damages that had never actually been incurred). The debate as to whether or not patents help or hinder innovation is an old one. It’ll be interesting to see what cases are made at WIPO’s upcoming symposium. WIPO’s Symposium to Address Operational Deficiencies in Global IP Systems will set a precedent for a wide range of IP issues. Access to music, movies, art, inventions and processes will be affected regardless of whether or not a global patent standard is entertained. For more information on the event, visit the WIPO program page. Next Steps: WIPO Symposium Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Related Posts dana oshirocenter_img A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#Microsoft#NYT#web last_img read more

Philippine Azkals flaunt quality under continental spotlight

first_img(From up L) Philippines’ defender Luke Woodland, Philippines’ defender Alvaro Silva, Philippines’ forward Patrick Reichelt, Philippines’ midfielder Kevin Ingreso, Philippines’ goalkeeper Michael Falkesgaard(From down L) Philippines’ defender Daisuke Sato, Philippines’ midfielder Stephan Schrock, Philippines’ forward Javier Patino, Philippines’ midfielder Manuel Ott, Philippines’ defender Stefan Palla pose for a photograph prior to the 2019 AFC Asian Cup football game between Korea Republic and Philippines at the al-Maktoum stadium in Dubai on January 07, 2019. (Photo by Giuseppe CACACE / AFP)DUBAI—It was a debut many years in the making and the Philippines surely left its mark, notwithstanding the result.On a cold Monday night at Al Maktoum Stadium, the Azkals combined their grit and resilience with their tactical genius and work rate for the rest of the continent to see as they went toe-to-toe against a giant in South Korea in their Group C opener.ADVERTISEMENT That the Koreans needed a 67th minute strike from Hwang Uijo to finally grab maximum points was a mere footnote to what was a memorable introduction for the Azkals, who showed a spring in their step as chants of Pilipinas reverberated inside the cavernous, newly-refurbished facility throughout the match.READ: Asian Cup: Azkals impress in loss to South KoreaFEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine ‍football chiefSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool stars“After a game like this, you will be having one teary eye and one which is okay with the result and the performance,” said midfielder Stephan Schrock, the captain for the night as coach Sven Goran Eriksson opted to start Javier Patino in favor of Phil Younghusband.“We are very proud. Korea had a lot of good players, they are composed and much better than the average Asian team. We surprised everyone with the performance tonight. We did very good. We have something to build on.” LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion PBA to implement new rules on goaltending review, traveling, timeouts SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion The Azkals will take a two-hour bus ride to Abu Dhabi late Tuesday as they prepare for their duel with China on Friday. Getting a result against the Chinese is paramount for Eriksson’s side if it wants to advance to the last 16.Few expected the Azkals to stay competitive against a Korean team that regularly plays in the World Cup and only recently stunned former World Cup champion Germany, 2-0.But the Azkals were hardly fazed by the quality and experience of a Korean side, which had established players in Ki Seungyeung of Newcastle United and Lee Chungyoung, formerly of Crystal Palace.The tactical brilliance of the staff led by Eriksson and deputies Scott Cooper and Chris Greatwich allowed the Azkals to cope with the Korean assault for majority of the match.The Azkals defended deep, but they tracked runs off the ball and produced a solid defensive block that hardly allowed the Koreans to break through. On the counter, they proved dangerous with Schrock and Patrick Reichelt threatening on the right and Patino holding up the play to relieve the pressure.ADVERTISEMENT Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next It took some tweaks and the introduction of Lee early in the second half for Korea to finally break down the Azkals.Lee, who played four seasons in the Premier League, praised the Azkals for their gallant stand.“Everyone thought Korea will win this game, but we saw in the first half that it was not easy,” said the midfielder. “It was a tough game for us. I’m happy to get a result, but the Philippines is good. They have a good future in this tournament.”The three-man defense anchored by Alvaro Silva put bodies on the line just to deny the Koreans opportunities, while Michael Falkesgaard produced three big saves to keep the Azkals in the match up until the late stages of the match.Patino led the line ferociously and provided the Azkals an attacking outlet when they recover the ball from deep positions, but his finishing let him down particularly in the second half when his tamed effort failed to beat Kim Seunggyu on the Korean goal when the match was still goalless.“We kept it nil nil for a long time,” said Younghusband, who came on in the 88th minute.“The longer it got, the more confidence it gave us. Every player had to work in this team. If you lose concentration or you sleep, South Korea will take advantage.”Still, it was a debut to remember for a Philippine team that struggles to get support for the sport back home.“The feeling is incredible: The whole atmosphere,” said Reichelt. “You can feel that this was all a different stage. And we showed that we belong in this stage.”“I’m happy with the performance; but I’m also sad because we could have gotten something out of it,” said Azkals manager Dan Palami. “But if somebody told us before the game that it was going to be just 1-nil, I would take it anytime against a team like South Korea which is always in the World Cup. It gives us encouragement and motivation to do better in our next games.”center_img Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments Hotel management clarifies SEAG footballers’ kikiam breakfast issue Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting MOST READ Is Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? LATEST STORIES RELATED VIDEO Magalong: Albayalde also got SUV out of ‘agaw bato’ operation in 2013 PLAY LIST 01:19Magalong: Albayalde also got SUV out of ‘agaw bato’ operation in 201300:50Trending Articles01:21’Save the PNP:’ Gordon says Albayalde ‘under pressure’ from PMA02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krausslast_img read more