Eighteen teams will compete across the mixed, women’s and men’s divisions.Some of Canberra’s finest touch players will be on show including Bec Beath, Pippi Langford and Australian representatives, Matt Atkins, Dean Taylor and Josh Wilkinson. Another Australian representative, Jake Evans, will line up for the Hunter Hornets.As part of the weekend, ACT junior teams will participate in a feature match during the break on Saturday night. The Twilight Touch Weekend will tap-off from 2pm on Saturday with the semi-finals and final held on Sunday.
In what was one of the craziest endings we’ve ever seen in an NCAA Tournament game, No. 6 seed SMU lost to No. 11 seed UCLA on a goaltending call. The call was somewhat questionable, but it gave the Bruins a one-point lead, eventually sending them into the Third Round with a 60-59 victory. Following the devastating loss, SMU senior forward Yanick Moreira, the recipient of the goaltending call, took to Twitter to express his frustration. I would like to apologize for all the SMU fans as senior I shouldn’t make those type of mistake.. I’m really sorry— Yanick Moreira (@Ymoreira35) March 19, 2015“@KDTrey5: Yep that was a goaltend.” You right ref thank you for end my college career pic.twitter.com/nhrrON0DQM— Yanick Moreira (@Ymoreira35) March 19, 2015These guys don’t deserve it . It really hurts . All those mile run in the summer all those 2 a day to end my college career like this— Yanick Moreira (@Ymoreira35) March 19, 2015Here’s the play. Was it the right call?
MONTREAL — A Quebec think tank says the province’s plan to cut immigration levels is misguided and will not accomplish its intended goal of better integrating newcomers.The Institut de recherche et d’informations socio-economiques published a study today concluding from publicly available data that immigrants are faring better in Quebec than the government claims.Researcher Julia Posca says the employment rate among immigrants has risen steadily over the past decade, and almost 60 per cent of immigrants who arrive in Quebec are fluent in French.While Posca says the employment rate for immigrants still lags behind that of the general population, part of that is attributable to how the province recognizes newcomers’ work and education experience.The institute says it is in favour of maintaining 50,000 as the number of immigrants accepted annually by the province, citing the province’s aging population as one factor. The government plans to reduce immigration to about 40,000 this year.Quebec Immigration Minister Simon Jolin-Barrette tabled Bill 9 in February, which lays down a legal framework that would overhaul the system for selecting newcomers to the province and allow it to be more selective.Jolin-Barrette said at the time the new approach would better match applicants to the needs of the labour market and ensure immigrants speak French and respect Quebec values.A spokesman for Jolin-Barrette says the government is acting on a clear mandate given to it on Oct. 1 when the Coalition Avenir Quebec was elected after campaigning on the issue.The Canadian Press
The number of users of international pay TV operator M7 Group’s OTT TV service has now reached 300,000, representing a growth rate of 30% since December last year.Bill WijdeveldM7 Group VP of business development Bill Wijdeveld said that take-up of the M7 TV app, which is available on Apple and Android devices, had been “impressive”.In addition to its app for Android and iOS devices, M7 has also introduced a dedicated app for smart TVs in partnership with Samsung, allowing viewers to access both linear and interactive services without the need for a set-top box. It said that agreements with other TV manufacturers would follow soon.M7 said that as a result of he rapid uptake of hybrid TV viewing among M7 subscribers, special interest channels targeting smaller viewing audiences, including NPO Zapp, NPO1 Extra, RTL Crime, RTL Lounge and AT5, are now primarily distributed via OTT.The pay TV outfit said that the availability of OTT and hybrid distribution in addition to M7’s existing DTH and IPTV platforms meant that the group was able to make new channels available. It said that it would shortly add NPO2 Extra, NPO3 Extra and NPO Nieuws to the line-up of the Canal Digitaal TV app. Content from the channels will also be available via the operator’s restart and replay TV services.
Goats being milked in a mechanised milking parlour. Image Credit: Takako Picture Lab / Shutterstock By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDJun 27 2019Researchers from RMIT’s lab analyzed goat’s milk formula and looked at the oligosaccharides present in it. These simple sugars and the prebiotics present within the goat’s milk based infant formula have been found to help develop helpful or beneficial gut bacteria in the infant’s gut and protect them from harmful bacterial colonization in their intestines. The study results were published in the latest issue of the journal British Journal of Nutrition and titled, “Oligosaccharides in goats’ milk-based infant formula and their prebiotic and anti-infection properties.” The study results were presented at the 2019 Annual Nutrition Conference of the American Society of Nutrition in Baltimore, USA.The team writes that human milk is rich in a wide range of oligosaccharides that provide immense health benefits to the infants. One of these benefits includes development of the microbiome in the gut or healthy microbes in the intestines. This development is linked to development of a healthy immune system and also protection against gastrointestinal infections. Cow’s milk based formula is most commonly used for infants but it has been seen that goat’s milk is closer to humans than cow’s milk, write the researchers.The team analyzed two commercially available goat’s milk formula preparations and found that these contain 14 naturally-occurring prebiotic oligosaccharides. Only five of these are found in the human breast milk, they write. Study leader Professor Harsharn Gill explained that this is the first study that explores the diverse nature of the oligosaccharides found in goat’s milk and compare them to human breast milk. He said, “Our results show goat milk formula may have strong prebiotic and anti-infection properties, that could protect infants against gastrointestinal infections. The study indicates the prebiotic oligosaccharides in goat milk formula are effective at selectively promoting the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut.” He added however, “While these laboratory results are promising, further research including clinical trials will help us to confirm these benefits for infants.”Infant formula is substituted for human breast milk when breastfeeding is not possible or inadequate. Till date there have been no studies that compare the benefits provided by the oligosaccharides from breast milk of goat milk based formula milk and their likely benefits to the health.Related StoriesNew methods to recognize antimicrobial resistant bacteria and how they workNon-pathogenic bacteria engineered as Trojan Horse to treat tumors from withinJAMA commentary: Nutrition knowledge essential for today’s physiciansThe team examined two goat milk formula and searched for naturally found oligosaccharides. The formula they studied were “Oli6 Stage 1 for babies aged 0-6 months and Oli6 Stage 2 for babies aged 6-12 months.” They looked for prebiotic properties as well as their infection-protection role.Results showed that goat’s milk contained natural prebiotic oligosaccharides that helped in growth of healthy gut bacteria called “bifidobacteria”. These oligosaccharides also helped in inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria in the gut including pathogenic E. coli. These organisms are responsible for one in three cases of infant diarrhoea explain the researchers.The team used “Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)” to analyze the oligosaccharides. The prebiotic potential of the formula was assessed by allowing the formula to help in the growth of bacteria such as “Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12, Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Lactobacillus acidophilus 4461 and Lactobacillus casei 2607” in the laboratory settings in vitro. To test the anti-infective properties, these oligosaccharides were tested if they prevented the adhesion of harmful bacteria such as “Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 and a Salmonella typhimurium isolate” to experimental cell lines called Caco-2 cells.Results revealed that the 14 quantifiable oligosaccharides in stage-1 and stage-2 goat’s milk-based infant formula were similar to those present in fresh goat’s milk. These oligosaccharides helped in growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and also reduced the adhesion of harmful bacteria such as E. coli NCTC 10418 and S. typhimurium to Caco-2 cells.Two oligosaccharides were abundantly found in goat’s milk – fucosylated and sialylated. Gill explained, “Fucosylated are the most abundant oligosaccharides in human milk and are the focus of significant commercial and regulatory interest. These oligosaccharides have been shown to play a significant role in anti-infection properties of breast milk.”Authors of the study concluded, “these results suggest that oligosaccharides naturally present in goat’s milk-based infant formula exhibit strong prebiotic and anti-pathogen adhesion properties and may confer gut health benefits to infants.”As a next step of their study, the team is looking to undertake a clinical trial to confirm the anti-infective and probiotic properties of goat’s milk versus other formula milks.This study was supported by the RMIT and an Entrepreneurs’ Programme: Innovation Connections Grant as well as by the Australian Government and Nuchev Pty Ltd, manufacturers of Oli6. Researchers declared no conflicts of interest with the manufacturers. Source:https://www.rmit.edu.au/news/media-releases-and-expert-comments/2019/jun/goat-milk-formula-gutJournal reference:Leong, A., Liu, Z., Zisu, B., Pillidge, C., Rochfort, S., Almshawit, H., & Gill, H. (n.d.). Oligosaccharides in goat’s milk-based infant formula and their prebiotic and anti-infection properties. British Journal of Nutrition, 1-26. doi:10.1017/S000711451900134X – http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711451900134X
Credit: CC0 Public Domain Citation: Phishing success linked to incentives and sticking to an effective strategy (2018, February 21) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-phishing-success-linked-incentives-effective.html Not all phishing campaigns work, but when an attacker perseveres with a strategy that does it is the key to their success. That’s the finding of a new study focusing on the attacker, a largely ignored but crucial aspect of phishing. In addition to identifying successful strategies, it also reveals that attackers are motivated by quicker and larger rewards—with creative individuals putting more effort into constructing these malicious emails. Insights from the study, published today in open-access journal Frontiers in Psychology, can be used to develop tools and training procedures to detect phishing emails. Provided by Frontiers Gone phishin’: CyLab exposes how our ability to spot phishing emails is far from perfect “We find specific phishing strategies, such as the use of authoritative tone, expressing shared interest and sending notifications, are more likely to succeed,” says Dr. Prashanth Rajivan, lead author of the study and based at Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania, USA.Phishing is a common form of cyber-attack. Criminals impersonate a trustworthy third party to persuade people to visit fraudulent web sites or download malicious attachments, with the intent of compromising their security. While research has largely focused on the victims of these crimes, this new study looks at a critical aspect of phishing: the attacker’s behavior and strategies.”We created a game-like experiment to assess how well different strategies work, and to understand how incentives and success rates, or an individual’s creativity, can affect motivation,” explains Dr. Rajivan.In the experiment, human participants play the role of a phishing attacker and accumulate points, over a number turns, for successfully deceiving other people who are the ‘end-user’ performing an email management task. The game was carefully constructed to train and reward people into producing phishing emails that employ different strategies and topics.Strategies that were less likely to succeed included ‘offering deals,’ ‘selling illegal materials’ and ‘using a positive tone.'”People may be less receptive to strategies associated with scams that worked a decade ago,” explains Dr. Rajivan. “More successful strategies today would be ‘sending notifications,’ ‘use of authoritative tone,’ ‘taking advantage of trust by impersonating a friend or expressing shared interest,’ and ‘communicating failure’.”The repeated design of the game allowed the researchers to assess the attacker’s tactics over time. This revealed that perseverance with a successful strategy, rather than switching from one to another, can yield better results. The researchers attribute this to the attackers improving the email text at each turn.Incentives had a direct influence on motivation, with delayed rewards resulting in lesser effort. The easier and sooner high rewards were gained, the more effort an attacker applied to designing persuasive emails, as did individuals who scored high in a ‘creativity’ test. There was no evidence to suggest, however, that creativity could be used as a predictor of phishing success.”There has been a resurgence in phishing attacks in recent years and the regular, non-expert users of the Internet are usually the victims of these crimes. We need to improve current security practices to change the incentive structure for the attacker. If the rewards are greater than the costs, attackers will continue to exert more effort into phishing campaigns,” says Dr. Rajivan. “We think that attackers with higher creativity may be capable of changing and adapting emails to evade detection, even though their creativity cannot determine how much success they achieve in getting the end-user to respond.”He continues, “Our novel experimental design could be used to crowdsource people to play our game, which would give us lots of information on phishing success rates and how these emails can be adapted, thereby improving detection software. In addition, we could use it as a training tool to help people think like hackers to better detect phishing emails.” Journal information: Frontiers in Psychology Explore further More information: Frontiers in Psychology (2018). DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00135 , https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00135/full This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Provided by Imperial College London This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. SpiraSense, founded by Imperial student George Winfield, is developing the low-cost sensors to speed up the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis in hospital patients. Sepsis is a life-threatening condition responsible for 44,000 deaths every year in the UK. It arises when the body overwhelmingly over-reacts in trying to control an infection, injuring its own healthy organs and tissue in the process, and is a particular risk for people already in hospital because of another serious illness.If it is caught early and treated quickly, most people make a full recovery. But without rapid treatment, sepsis can quickly lead to multiple organ failure and death in just a few hours. Low-cost solutionOne of the early symptoms of sepsis is rapid breathing. Currently, breathing rate is measured manually by doctors on observation rounds.Tests show that SpiraSense can monitor respiratory rate continuously, as well as detecting other biomarkers for organ failure using only the patient’s breath—something that would usually require an invasive and intermittent blood test. If adopted, an AI powered app could then alert doctors to possible patient deterioration in real time, allowing for faster diagnosis and treatment. George, who is undertaking an MRes in Medical Device Design & Entrepreneurship at Imperial, said: “The device learns from every breath a patient takes. It would allow doctors to see trends that might not be immediately apparent from manual observations, giving them more information to make an informed decision about patient care.” Their small paper sensors, which are about the size of a postage stamp, are designed to attach to any breathing mask or nasal cannula already used in hospitals, potentially offering a low cost solution. SpiraSense was awarded a £7,000 prize package, including a 12-month membership at the Imperial Incubator and £5,000 to support the business’s growth. George is currently engaged with securing further funding to develop his device ready for clinical testing. Citation: Paper sensor to speed up sepsis diagnosis wins innovation competition (2018, May 31) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-paper-sensor-sepsis-diagnosis-competition.html Boosting growth Delivered in partnership with NatWest, the Innovators’ Programme is the Imperial Incubator’s flagship pre-accelerator programme. It aims to support the development of technology focussed early-stage companies by providing funding, mentoring, access to Imperial’s innovation ecosystem, free space to work, and training in areas such as fundraising, team building, IP, marketing and pitch practice. The programme runs twice a year at the White City Incubator, and is aimed at Imperial alumni, current students, and tech businesses from the local area. George added: “It has been fantastic to work with such a diverse range of people and businesses on this programme. You really learn a lot from other perspectives and approaches. “The mentoring on the programme has been especially valuable. It’s great to be able to bounce ideas around with people who have such great experience and networks.” The programme culminated in a pitching event on the 24 May, where eight participating businesses pitched their ideas to a panel of judges. The panel included Dr. Govind Pindoria—Director of the Venture Support Unit at Imperial Innovations, Rebeca Santamaria-Fernandez—Head of Corporate Partnerships for the Faculty of Engineering at Imperial, Rebecca Wilson—Head of Corporate Partnerships for the Faculty of Natural Sciences atImperial, Chris Tilley – Director of the Investor Club at Coutts Private Banking, and Peter Ryan-Bell—Head of Large Corporate & Sectors UK & Western Europe at RBS. Runners up Rightly, founded by Alexander Arbuthnot and Tom Andrews, took home second prize for their start-up that allows consumers control over how their data is used by companies by automating subject rights requests enabled under DGPR. Local White City resident Sasha Pinnock was awarded third prize for SP Tracked Safety Jackets, a business that creates GPS trackable high-vis jackets. The jackets would allow parents and guardians of small children or carers of vulnerable adults to keep track of where their loved-ones are and monitor their safety Fourth prize went to ifPlus, founded by Imperial College Business School alumnus Tassilo Vogel, a decision-making tool and knowledge sharing platform that would allow users to search for advice for a variety of different situations. Breath test breakthrough for early diagnosis of oesophageal and gastric cancer Credit: Imperial College London A student-founded startup creating paper sensors to monitor breathing rates of hospital patients has won the White City Innovators’ Programme. Explore further
Q: What’s the timeline for taking the company public, and do you think you can do it without being profitable?A: We’re looking at the second half of next year toward the end of the year. There are very few companies of our size that have the kind of growth rate or exciting new businesses like Uber Eats within the portfolio, and we’re showing progress toward profitability. We have to show a path to profitability.Q: What about the driverless car program? Is Toyota going to run it, and what are the plans for Toyota’s $500 million investment?A: We have an incredibly talented in-house team of engineers who are building hardware, software and operations to make self-driving cars a reality in a safe manner. An advantage we have now is we’re building self-driving technology while we have a live network in place, and ultimately we think there’s going to be a hybrid of self-driving technology and human-driven technology. We wanted to bring Toyota in as a valuable partner. Toyota is bringing in special cars that are going to be electric and that are built for ride sharing in urban destinations. Their expertise in self-driving and car manufacturing and our expertise with advanced technologies and our network will be an unbeatable combination.Q: Do you think that Toyota will help in terms of rebuilding the trust in Uber’s self-driving program after what happened in Phoenix?A: I think Toyota’s investment in us and their partnership with us speaks volumes about our efforts and their efforts. We have a lot to learn from Toyota in terms of manufacturing, technology, brand and safety. We’re here to learn, and the partnership is off to a great start. Ever since he stepped into his role as CEO a year ago, Dara Khosrowshahi has had to deal with wave after wave of major scandals and bad press, much of which he inherited from his predecessor, Travis Kalanick. Citation: A year in, Uber CEO works to rebuild company’s reputation (2018, September 6) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-year-uber-ceo-rebuild-company.html Uber rolls out safety features for drivers, passengers Uber CEO Dara Khosrowshahi speaks during the company’s unveiling of the new features, in New York, Wednesday, Sept. 5, 2018. Uber is aiming to boost driver and passenger safety in an effort to rebuild trust in the brand.(AP Photo/Richard Drew) About two weeks after Khosrowshahi started his job, London’s transport regulator decided to revoke Uber’s license to operate, jeopardizing the regional business with 3.5 million passengers. A court eventually gave Uber a license, although much shorter than normal.Later that year Uber was forced to come clean about covering up a major computer attack that stole personal information about more than 57 million customers and drivers. In February, Uber agreed to pay $245 million to Google’s self-driving car spinoff to end a legal brawl that aired out allegations that Uber stole technology.Perhaps the biggest problem came in March when an Uber self-driving test vehicle ran down and killed a pedestrian in the Phoenix suburb of Tempe, Arizona. Later it was disclosed that the human backup driver in the Uber SUV was streaming the television show “The Voice” on her phone and looking downward just before the crash.Under Khosrowshahi, Uber has been trying to shore up its reputation. It has made safety a top priority and on Wednesday, it revealed a suite of safety features for both drivers and passengers. Uber is also teaming up with Toyota to build self-driving cars for its ride-hailing service and will receive a $500 million investment from the Japanese automaker. Uber CEO Dara Khosrowshahi speaks during the company’s unveiling of the new features in New York, Wednesday, Sept. 5, 2018. Uber is aiming to boost driver and passenger safety in an effort to rebuild trust in the brand. (AP Photo/Richard Drew) Khosrowshahi sat down with The Associated Press to talk about his first year as CEO and how he plans to steer the company. Answers have been edited for space and clarity.Q: Aside from improving safety features, where do you see the company headed?A: Uber was a ride-hailing service, but really we want to think about Uber as a broad transportation platform which includes ride-hailing, Uber Eats, e-bikes, scooters—and eventually we’re going to integrate with mass transit. So if you work in a city and if you want to get from point A to point B, we want you to think about Uber. We ultimately want to be your one-stop shop for transportation.Q: You’ve been at Uber a year, and from the moment you walked through the door there have been problems. When do you feel like you’ve reached the point where you’ve stopped repairing the damage of your predecessor and are really making your mark on the company? Explore further © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Uber CEO Dara Khosrowshahi speaks during the company’s unveiling of the new features in New York, Wednesday, Sept. 5, 2018. Uber is aiming to boost driver and passenger safety in an effort to rebuild trust in the brand.(AP Photo/Richard Drew) A: My predecessor made mistakes. I’m going to make mistakes as well. The fact is that I’ve inherited an incredible company with incredible talent. My predecessor and his team built a company that’s a verb. So no one’s perfect and there’s a lot that we’ve undertaken to fix. We have rebuilt the culture of the company, we have reprioritized safety as a number one priority for the company…I can tell you that a year in, I’m thrilled to be here and I’ve got a ton of work to do. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
In Georgia, where numerous problems led to long lines and discouraged voters at polling places Tuesday, the cost to replace its all-electronic machines is estimated at $120 million. The machines have been in use since 2002 and do not produce a paper record that voters can use to verify their selections and election workers can use to audit results.The election technology in Georgia and the other states using all-electronic machines is so unreliable and vulnerable to hacking that Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen has joined calls for the machines to be replaced. In August, she said she wants “all state and local election officials to make certain that by the 2020 presidential election, every American votes on a verifiable and auditable ballot.”Voters on Election Day and during early voting in the weeks before reported sporadic problems with election equipment in numerous states, including Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia, said Kristen Clarke, president of the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, which runs the nonpartisan Election Protection voter assistance hotline.During early voting in Texas, some voters who were casting “straight ticket” ballots for candidates solely of one party found their vote in the nationally watched U.S. Senate race changed to the other party’s candidate. State officials said that can occur when voters complete and submit ballots too quickly, but voting experts said it was wrong to blame voters. The real problem was poorly designed technology that is 16 years old, they said.”You design it to work regardless of how fast people push buttons,” said University of Iowa computer scientist Douglas Jones, author of “Broken Ballots.”Jones said Tuesday’s problems were not unusually bad given the state of the technology used. On Election Day, 18 voting locations in Texas opened late because of machine or poll book failures, and some locations still did not have all machines working by mid-afternoon Tuesday.Officials in 33 states have said they must replace their machines by 2020, according to a Brennan Center for Justice report earlier this year. But so far there has not been a wholesale commitment to paying for the upgrades.”A big part of this is people who are responsible for making decisions on how the money is being spent think people don’t care,” said Lawrence Norden, a voting systems expert at the Brennan Center. “When you have to make decisions about how to spend money and you are a state legislator, you feel more pressure to spend money on basic services.”New York Attorney General Barbara Underwood said she was determined to get something done after voters in her state were forced to drop their ballots into emergency boxes or resort to voting by affidavit because so many electronic scanners failed within hours after the polls opened.New York’s “archaic elections systems aren’t just inconvenient—they also undermine our democratic process,” Underwood tweeted Tuesday.The malfunctioning equipment turned a polling place in Brooklyn’s Park Slope neighborhood into a “mosh pit,” said Brad Lander, a New York City councilman. By the time he got a chance to vote, all four of the scanners in the precinct were broken.The clock is ticking to make upgrades, with the presidential election just two years away. Selecting and buying new voting machines can easily take a year and a half or longer, and that’s assuming a state has money to spend.”It’s not like going into Best Buy, and saying ‘I want 250 of those machines,'” said Vermont Secretary of State Jim Condos. Citation: Midterm voting exposes growing problem of aging machines (2018, November 7) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-midterm-voting-exposes-problem-aging.html Explore further Elections forensics can enhance, challenge legitimacy of election outcome People stand on numerous lines as they wait to vote at Kingsboro Temple Seventh-day Adventist Church in the Brooklyn borough of New York on Tuesday, Nov. 6, 2018. The malfunctioning equipment turned a polling place in Brooklyn’s Park Slope neighborhood into a “mosh pit,” said Brad Lander, a New York City councilman. By the time he got a chance to vote, all four of the scanners in the precinct were broken. (Courtesy of Brad Lander via AP) © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Election experts have long warned about the nation’s aging fleet of voting equipment. This week’s elections underscored just how badly upgrades are needed. Across the country, reports poured in Tuesday amid heavy voter turnout of equipment failing or malfunctioning, triggering frustration among voters and long lines at polling places.Scanners used to record ballots broke down in New York City. Voting machines stalled or stopped working in Detroit. Electronic poll books used to check in voters failed in Georgia. Machines failed to read ballots in Wake County, North Carolina, as officials blamed humidity and lengthy ballots.Those problems followed a busy early voting period that revealed other concerns, including machines that altered voters’ choices in Texas, North Carolina and Georgia.Voting experts had hoped the threat of foreign governments meddling in U.S. elections, raised in 2016 when Russia targeted state election systems, would prompt action to upgrade the machinery that underpins U.S. elections.But two years before the 2020 presidential election, 41 states are still using machines that were manufactured more than a decade ago and a dozen states are using at least some electronic machines that produce no paper trail, which can be used to settle a disputed outcome. Just three states require the type of rigorous audit backed by cybersecurity experts.Some of the voting machines in use Tuesday were built before Apple released the first iPhone in 2007, while other equipment has become so obsolete that election workers have been forced to search on eBay for replacement parts.In some cases, local election offices have no technicians who are trained to repair their machines when something goes wrong. Some even run on Windows operating systems that Microsoft no longer supports.”You can’t run democracy on the cheap,” said Jenny Flanagan, vice president for state operations with Common Cause. “We have to invest in our democracy to make our elections work.”Congress sent $380 million to states earlier this year, but that was nowhere near enough to pay for the bulk of the nation’s nearly 10,000 election jurisdictions to upgrade their equipment. Experts with the Brennan Center for Justice have estimated it would take $1 billion or more to make the necessary upgrades. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.